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Notes on Cell Organelles Plasma Membrane (cell membrane) 1. Double membrane system-two molecule thick layer (bilayer) 2. Made of phospholipids 3. Imbedded with many proteins that have carbohydrates attached Two functions of the plasma membrane 1. Boundary that holds the cell parts together and keeps other things out. 2. Permeability allows movement of nutrients and waste materials into and out of the cell. Peroxisome 1. Single membrane bound microbody in the cytoplasm of the cell 2. Rid the cell of toxic substances, especially Hydrogen Peroxide 3. They are self replicating and the most common microbodies in the cell Nucleus 1. Highly specialized organelle that is the information center of the cell 2. Double membrane is known as the nuclear envelope that is attached to the ER Two main functions of the nucleus 3. Stores the cell’s hereditary material (DNA) 4. Coordinates the cell’s activities (metabolism, growth, protein synthesis, and reproduction or cell division) Mitochondria 1. The power generators of the cell “powerhouse of the cell” 2. Aerobic respiration converts oxygen and nutrients into ATP 3. ATP is the chemical energy that powers the activities of the cell 4. Has its own DNA only passed on from the mother 5. Reproduces independently of the cell 6. Double membrane system, inner membrane is known as the folded Cristae Lysosome 1. Single membrane bound microbody 2. Their main function is digestion 3. They recycle cellular waste products from outside the cell 4. Originate in the Golgi apparatus Ribosome 1. Scattered throughout the cytoplasm producing proteins 2. Produced and assembled in the nucleolus 3. Made up of RNA and protein Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 1. Manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. 2. Continuous membrane that extends throughout the cytoplasm 3. Can connect the double-layered nuclear envelope and the cell membrane Rough ER 1. Covered with ribosomes 2. Involved with the production of proteins (mainly shaping) Smooth ER 1. Involved in the production of lipids (fats), carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of drugs and poisons 2. Transport of items from Rough ER to Golgi body Golgi Body (golgi complex, golgi apparatus) 1. Distribution and shipping department for the cell’s chemical products 2. Modifies proteins and lipids (fats) that have been built in the ER 3. Prepares nutrients for export out of the cell Vacuole 1. Provides structural support by using turgor pressure 2. Stores nutrients and water 3. Transportation of waste materials and nutrients throughout the cell 4. Some contain pigments that give flowers their color Chloroplasts 1. Have a double membrane. 2. Site of Photosynthesis because they contain chlorophyll. 3. Ps (conversion of carbon dioxide and water to glucose and oxygen). 4. Have stacks of grana that are connected by thylakoid membranes.