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Transcript
• Overview of
catabolic
pathways
• Catabolism of glucose via
glycolysis and the citric
acid cycle
NADH
NADH, FADH2
Net reaction of glycolysis
Converts: 1 glucose
2 pyruvate
+
• Two molecules of ATP are produced
• Two molecules of NAD+ are reduced to NADH
Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 NAD+ + 2 Pi
2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O
Glycolysis can be divided into two stages
• Hexose stage: 2 ATP are consumed per glucose
• Triose stage: 4 ATP are produced per glucose
Net: 2 ATP produced per glucose
x2
Fig 11.2
1
Transfer of a phosphoryl
group from ATP to glucose
enzyme: hexokinase
2
Isomerization of
glucose 6-phosphate
to fructose 6-phosphate
enzyme: glucose 6-phosphate isomerase
3
Transfer of a second
phosphoryl group from
ATP to fructose 6-phosphate
enzyme: phosphofructokinase-1
4
Carbon 3 – Carbon 4
bond cleavage,
yielding two
triose phosphates
enzyme: aldolase
Enzyme 1. Hexokinase
• Transfers the g-phosphoryl of ATP to glucose C-6 oxygen to
generate glucose 6-phosphate
• Mechanism: attack of C-6 hydroxyl oxygen of glucose on the
g-phosphorous of MgATP2- displacing MgADP-
Fig 11.3
2. Glucose 6-Phosphate Isomerase
• Converts glucose 6-phosphate (an aldose) to
fructose 6-phosphate (a ketose)
• Enzyme converts glucose 6-phosphate to open
chain form in the active site
Fig 11.4
3. Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
• Catalyzes transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP
to the C-1 hydroxyl group of fructose 6-phosphate
to form fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP)
• PFK-1 is metabolically irreversible and a critical
regulatory point for glycolysis in most cells
(PFK-1 is the first committed step of glycolysis)
4. Aldolase
• Aldolase cleaves the hexose fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
into two triose phosphates: glyceraldehyde 3phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
5. Triose Phosphate Isomerase
• Conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate
into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Fig 11.6 Fate of carbon atoms from
hexose stage to triose stage
6. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
Dehydrogenase (GAPDH)
• Conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3BPG)
• Molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH
Box 11.2 Arsenate (AsO43-) poisoning
• Arsenate can replace Pi as a substrate for
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
• Arseno analog which forms is unstable
7. Phosphoglycerate Kinase
• Uses uses the high-energy phosphate of
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to form ATP from ADP
• Transfer of phosphoryl group from the energy-rich
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP yields ATP and
3-phosphoglycerate
8. Phosphoglycerate Mutase
• Catalyzes transfer of a phosphoryl group from one
part of a substrate molecule to another
• Reaction occurs without input of ATP energy
9. Enolase: 2-phosphoglycerate to
phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
• Elimination of water (dehydration) yields PEP
• PEP has a very high phosphoryl group transfer
potential because it exists in its unstable enol form
10. Pyruvate Kinase
• Metabolically irreversible
reaction
Fates of pyruvate
• For centuries, bakeries
and breweries have
exploited the
conversion of glucose
to ethanol and CO2 by
glycolysis in yeast
Metabolism of Pyruvate
1. Aerobic conditions: pyruvate is oxidized to
acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle
for further oxidation
2. Anaerobic conditions (microorganisms):
pyruvate is converted to ethanol
3. Anaerobic conditions (muscles, red blood
cells): pyruvate is converted to lactate
Fig 11.10
• Fates of pyruvate
Fig 11.11
• Two enzymes required:
(1) Pyruvate decarboxylase
(2) Alcohol dehydrogenase
• Anaerobic
conversion of
pyruvate to ethanol
(yeast - anaerobic)
Reduction of Pyruvate to Lactate
(muscles - anaerobic)
• Muscles lack pyruvate dehydrogenase and cannot produce
ethanol from pyruvate
• Muscle lactate dehydrogenase converts pyruvate to lactate
• This reaction regenerates NAD+ for use by glyceraldehyde 3phosphate dehydrogenase in glycolysis
• Lactate formed in skeletal muscles during exercise is
transported to the liver
• Liver lactate dehydrogenase can reconvert lactate to pyruvate
• Lactic acidosis can result from insufficient oxygen (an increase
in lactic acid and decrease in blood pH)
Reduction of pyruvate to lactate
Glucose + 2 Pi2- + 2 ADP3-
2 Lactate- + 2 ATP4- + 2 H2O
Metabolically Irreversible Steps of Glycolysis
• Enzymes not reversible:
Reaction 1 - hexokinase
Reaction 3 - phosphofructokinase
Reaction 10 - pyruvate kinase
• These steps are metabolically irreversible, and
these enzymes are regulated
• All other steps of glycolysis are near equilibrium in
cells and not regulated
Regulation of Glycolysis
1. When ATP is needed, glycolysis is activated
• Inhibition of phosphofructokinase-1 is relieved.
• Pyruvate kinase is activated.
2. When ATP levels are sufficient, glycolysis activity
decreases
• Phosphofructokinase-1 is inhibited.
• Hexokinase is inhibited.
Fig 11.13
Glucose transport
into the cell
Fig 11.14 Regulation of glucose transport
• Glucose uptake into skeletal and heart muscle and
adipocytes by GLUT 4 is stimulated by insulin
Regulation of Hexokinase
• Hexokinase reaction is metabolically irreversible
• Glucose 6-phosphate (product) levels increase
when glycolysis is inhibited at sites further along
in the pathway
• Glucose 6-phosphate inhibits hexokinase.
Regulation of Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
• ATP is a substrate and an allosteric inhibitor of PFK-1
• High concentrations of ADP and AMP allosterically
activate PFK-1 by relieving the ATP inhibition.
• Elevated levels of citrate (indicate ample substrates for
citric acid cycle) also inhibit Phospofructokinase-1
Regulation of PFK-1 by Fructose 2,6bisphosphate (F2,6BP)
• Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is formed from
Fructose 6-phosphate by the enzyme
phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2)
• Fig 11.17 Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
Formation and hydrolysis of
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
Prentice Hall c2002
Chapter 11
35
Fig. 11.18
• Effect of
glucagon
on liver
glycolysis
Prentice Hall c2002
Chapter 11
36
Regulation of Pyruvate Kinase (PK)
• Pyruvate Kinase is
allosterically activated
by Fructose 1,6bisphosphate, and
inhibited by ATP
• The hormone
glucagon stimulates
protein kinase A,
which phosphorylates
Pyruvate Kinase,
converting it to a less
active form.
Prentice Hall c2002
Chapter 11
37
Other Sugars Can Enter Glycolysis
• Glucose is the main metabolic fuel in most organisms
• Other sugars convert to glycolytic intermediates
• Fructose and sucrose (contains fructose) are major
sweeteners in many foods and beverages
• Galactose from milk lactose (a disaccharide)
• Mannose from dietary polysaccharides, glycoproteins
Prentice Hall c2002
Chapter 11
38
Fructose Is Converted to
Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
Galactose is Converted to
Glucose 1-Phosphate
Fig 11.22
Mannose is Converted to
Fructose 6-Phosphate
Formation of 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate
in Red Blood Cells
• 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (2,3BPG) allosterically
regulates hemoglobin oxygenation (red blood cells)
• Erythrocytes contain bisphosphoglycerate mutase
which forms 2,3BPG from 1,3BPG
• In red blood cells about 20% of the glycolytic flux is
diverted for the production of the important oxygen
regulator 2,3BPG
Prentice Hall c2002
Chapter 11
43
Fig 11.24
• Formation
of 2,3BPG
in red blood
cells
Feedback inhibition
• Product of a pathway controls the rate of its own synthesis
by inhibiting an enzyme catalyzing an early step
Feed-forward activation
• Metabolite early in the pathway activates
an enzyme further down the pathway
Prentice Hall c2002
Chapter 11
45