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Transcript
Energy Transfer and Glycolysis
Cellular Respiration
 Remember that there are four stages that occur in three different places within the cell
1. Glycolysis: occurs in the cytoplasm
2. Pyruvate Oxidation: occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion
3. Kreb Cycle: occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion
4. Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis: occur on the cristae (the inner mitochondrial
membrane)
Energy Transfer
 There are two main types
 Substrate-Level Phosphorylation: an enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group
from a high-energy level molecule to ADP, creating ATP
 For each glucose molecule processed, 4 ATP molecules are generated this way in Glycolysis and
2 in the Kreb’s Cycle (See Fig.2, p.95)
 Oxidative Phosphorylation: the transfer of energetic electrons from various molecules to
NAD+ and FAD.
 The coenzymes will then deliver the electrons to the ETC, which uses this energy to generate
a H+ gradient within the mitochondrion, which in turn is used to generate ATP
Glycolysis
 Anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)
 Name is Greek for “sugar splitting”
 Glucose (6-Carbon compound) is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3-C compound)
and yielding 2 molecules of ATP and 2 NADH molecules
 Occurs in the cytoplasm (see Fig.11 on p.98)
Steps of Glycolysis
Glucose (6-C)
**REQUIRES ENERGY**
ATP
ADP
Dephosphorylation
Glucose 6-phosphate
Structural Change
Fructose 6-phosphate
ATP
ADP
Dephosphorylation
Fructose 1,6-biphosphate
Molecule splits into
**RELEASES ENERGY**
(x2) Phosphoglyceraldehyde (P-PGAL) (3-C)
2NAD+
PI
2NADH
(x2) 1,3-biphosphoglycerate (P-PGAL-P)
ADP
Phosphorylation
ATP
(x2) 3-phosphoglycerate
Structural Change
(x2) 2-phosphoglycerate
Dehydration
H2O
(x2) phosphenolpyruvate (PEP)
ADP
ATP
(x2) pyruvate (3-C)
Phosphorylation
Pyruvate Oxidation
 The pyruvate molecules enter the matrix of the mitochondrion via a transport protein
(x2) pyruvate
CO2
NAD+
NADH + H+
Decarboxylation
(x2) Acetyl Co-A (2-C)

Overall formula (occurs twice for each molecule of glucose):
pyruvate + NAD+ + CoA  Acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2

Acetyl CoA proceeds to the Kreb Cycle, NADH proceeds to the Electron Transport Chain, CO2
diffuses out and the H+ stay in the matrix