Download An Introductory Overview of Cells, Chemical Bonds & Energy Part-I

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

List of types of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Mitosis wikipedia, lookup

Cytokinesis wikipedia, lookup

Extracellular matrix wikipedia, lookup

Amitosis wikipedia, lookup

Organ-on-a-chip wikipedia, lookup

Endomembrane system wikipedia, lookup

Cell nucleus wikipedia, lookup

JADE1 wikipedia, lookup

Cellular differentiation wikipedia, lookup

Cell culture wikipedia, lookup

Cell growth wikipedia, lookup

Cell encapsulation wikipedia, lookup

Cell cycle wikipedia, lookup

Tissue engineering wikipedia, lookup

Signal transduction wikipedia, lookup

Cytosol wikipedia, lookup

Cell membrane wikipedia, lookup

Cytoplasmic streaming wikipedia, lookup

Programmed cell death wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Lecture no.3
An Introductory Overview of
Cells, Chemical Bonds & Energy
Part-I
BCH 361/ Section: xxxxx
1
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
What We Will Be Covering-I?
 What is a Cell?
 The Two Types of Cells ?
 The Exception?
 The Organelles and Their Functions.
2
22/05/2017
What is a Cell?
Lecture no.3
Cell came from Latin word mean small
room.
A cell is the functional and structural unit of
all living organism.
 The Cell Theory --1839 by the German
botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden and
German physiologist Theodore Schwann.
3
22/05/2017
Cell Theory
Lecture no.3
All living things are made up of cells.
Cells are the smallest working units of all
living things.
All cells come from preexisting cells through
cell division.
4
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Plant Stem
Amoeba
Proteus
Examples of Cells
Bacteria
Nerve Cell
5
22/05/2017
Red Blood
Cell
Types of Cells
Lecture no.3
1. Prokaryotic
• Bacteria
• Archaea
2.
Eukaryotic
 Unicellular
• Protists
 Multi-cellular
• Fungi
• Plants
• Animals
6
22/05/2017
Prokaryotic Cells
Lecture no.3
• Characteristics
 Unicellular (some multi-cellular).
 Lacks a membrane bound nucleus.
 Lacks membrane bound organelles.
 Has a cell membrane (cell wall).
 Has ribosomes (protein production).
 Circular DNA.
7
22/05/2017
Eukaryotes
Lecture no.3
• Characteristics
 Unicellular (Protists).
 Multicellular (fungi, plants, animals).
 Membrane bound Nucleus.
 Contains Organelles.
 Linear DNA.
8
Typical animal cell
Typical plant cell
22/05/2017
Types of Eukaryotic Cells
Lecture no.3
1. Somatic
 Greek for “body’’
 All cells in the body except the sex cells.
 Found in the bones, skin, organs, tissues, blood.
 Reproduce by Mitosis.
2. Germ
 The Sex Cells.
 Sperm and Ova.
 Reproduce by Meiosis.
9
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Is there any
exception ?
10
22/05/2017
The Exception: Viruses
Lecture no.3
• Characteristics





11
Latin for “poison”.
Does not meet all the criteria of “Life”
Not made up of cells.
Contains DNA or RNA, but not usually both.
Require a host to replicate.
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Cell Parts
Organelles
12
22/05/2017
I- Surrounding the Cell
- Cell Membrane
Outer membrane of cell that controls
movement in and out of the cell.
 Place of communication with the
environment and other cells.
 “Gate of the Cell”.
13
Lecture no.3
- Cell wall
Most commonly found in plant
cells & bacteria.
“Supports & protects cells”.
22/05/2017
II- Inside the Cell
- Nucleus
First described by Robert Brown in
1831.
Largest organelle.
 Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear
membrane.
 Contains genetic material – DNA.
 “Control Center”
14
Lecture no.3
- Nuclear membrane
 Double membrane bag that surrounds
nucleus.
 Contains nuclear pores which is place
of selective transport between
cytoplasm and inside of nucleus
(proteins, mRNA)
 “Gate of the Nucleus”
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Continue…
- Chromosomes
In nucleus.
 Present in the form of strings of
DNA and histones.
Contain instructions for traits &
characteristics .
 “Director of the Cell”
15
- Nucleolus
 Inside nucleus.
 The nucleolus plays an indirect role
in protein synthesis by producing
ribosomes.
 Nucleolus is not a structure!!! Just a
visible region.
22/05/2017
Continue…
Lecture no.3
- Cytoplasm
-Endoplasmic Reticulum
Gel-like material.
The portion of the cell enclosed by the cell
membrane but not part of any organelle
It stores the organelles, water, and the
chemicals in it.
 “Area of Movement”.
The transportation center for the cell.
Smooth and rough types.
SER Site of fatty acid and
phospholipid synthesis, While RER
place of proteins synthesis
16
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Continue…
- Ribosomes
Found in the cytoplasm and on the ER.
Their job is to make proteins.
The nucleus makes the ribosomes.
17
- Mitochondria
Place of oxidative metabolism and
ATP production.
Contains its own DNA and
ribosomes.
 “Powerhouse of the Cell”
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Continue…
- Golgi Bodies
Package and to move protein to the
out side of the cell.
They also process proteins from
ribosomes that are located on the ER.
18
- Lysosome
Digest the wastes and other bad
organelles.
Acidic organelles - low pH due to proton
pump (pH=5) in the membrane.
Contain many degradative enzymes
such as acid hydrolases.
22/05/2017
Tay-Sachs disease :
is a genetic defect in one
of specific lysosomal
hydrolases
19
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
Continue…
- Vacuoles
The vacuole in the plant cell is larger
than the vacuole in the animal cell.
Membrane-bound sacs for storage,
digestion, and waste removal.
 “Storage Tanks” .
20
- Chloroplast
Contains green chlorophyll.
 Where photosynthesis takes place.
 “Food Producers” .
22/05/2017
Summary
21
Lecture no.3
22/05/2017
Lecture no.3
See you later to
continue with the
second part of this
module?
22
22/05/2017