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The Basic Units of Life
The Cell Theory
1. All organisms are composed of one or
more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all
living things.
3. All cells come from existing cells.
Organelles are chemicals and
structures that enable the cell to
live, grow and reproduce.
Two Types of Cells
Prokaryotic Cells:
• Have no membrane
covered nucleus
• Have no membrane
- covered organelles
• Have circular DNA
• Are bacteria
Two Types of Cells
Eukaryotic Cells:
• Have a nucleus
• Have a membrane covered organelles
• Have linear DNA
• Are all other cells
Hereditary Material and
• Hereditary Material
in the cell is DNA.
• DNA controls all the
activities of the cell.
• Cytoplasm is the
fluid contained in the
Cell Membrane
• Keeps cytoplasm
inside the cell
• Provides a barrier
between the inside
and the outside of
the cell
• Allows nutrients into
the cell and wastes
outside of the cell
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
• Found only in plant cells
• Made of cellulose
• Provides strength and
support for the cell
• When too much water
enters the plant cell, the
wall prevents it from
The Nucleus
• The largest most
visible organelle in
the cell
• The control center of
the cell
• Contains the Cell’s
Nuclear Membrane
• Smallest most
abundant organelles
• Found in all cells
• The site where
amino acids are
hooked together to
make proteins
• Does not have a
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Membrane covered
• Makes lipids and other
materials for use inside
and outside the cell
• Breaks down chemicals
that can damage the
• It is the internal delivery
system for the cell
Outer Membrane
• Site where ATP is
• It is surrounded by
two membranes
• Can only work if
Oxygen is present
Inner Membrane
• Found only in plant cells
• Has two membranes
• Contains chlorophyll,
which makes
chloroplasts green
• Sun’s energy is
trapped in chlorophyll to
make sugar
• This process is called
Inner Membrane
Outer Membrane
Golgi Complex
• Where proteins and
other materials are
processed and shipped
• Lipids and proteins are
modified here for
different functions
• Final products are
enclosed in a piece of
membrane that breaks
off and transports to
other parts of the cell or
outside of the cell
• Found only in Plants
• Large membrane covered chamber
• Stores water and
other liquids
• Found in animal cells
• Digests food particles
and cell parts
• Protects cell by
digesting foreign
• When they break they
cause the destruction of
the cell
Plant or Animal Cell?
Found in Plant and Animal cells:
• Nucleus
• Golgi Complex
• Mitochondrion
• Lyosomes
• Endoplasmic
• Cell Membrane
• Ribosomes
Found only in Plant Cells:
• Chloroplasts
• Vacuoles
• Cell Wall