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Transcript
Vocabulary – Pages 194-196
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Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Vacuole
Lysosome
Centriole
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Prokaryotic Cell
 With out a nucleus
 Do not contain
membrane-bound
organelles
Steven P. Lynch
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Prokaryotic Cell
 Prokaryotic cells includes all bacteria
 Prokaryotes contain only the following
structures:
1. Cell wall (peptidoglycan)
2. Plasma membrane
3. Genetic material as a single circular molecule of
DNA
4. Ribosomes
5. Cytoplasm
6. Plasmid (Small circular piece of DNA that only
some bacteria possess)
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Cell Discovery and Theory
Prokaryotic Cell
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Eukaryotic Cell
 More complex structure than prokaryotes
 In addition to the prokaryotic structures,
eukaryotes also have membrane bound
organelles, including a nucleus
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Cell Discovery and Theory
Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
The
Section 1
Cellular Structure and Function
Plasma Membrane
 Thin, flexible boundary between the cell
and its environment
 Allows nutrients into the cell
 Allows waste to leave the cell
 Selective permeability, phospholipid bilayer,
fluid mosaic model
Section 3
Cellular Structure and Function
Plant and Animal Cell Structures
 Organelles are bodies within the cytoplasm that
serve to physically separate the various
metabolic reactions that occur within the cells
 Organelles are specialized structures that carry
out specific cell function
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Chloroplasts
Endoplasmic reticulum
Cytoskeleton
Golgi Apparatus
Flagella & Cilia
Lysosomes
Centrioles
Peroxisomes
Vacuoles & Vesicles
Section 3
Cellular Structure and Function
Structures and Organelles
Section 3
Cellular Structure and Function
Structures and Organelles
Cytoplasm
• Semifluid material
makes up the
inside of a cell
• Environment
within the plasma
membrane that
contains the cells
organelles
Cytoskeleton
• Framework for the
cell within the
cytoplasm
• Involved in establishing the shape of the cell
and coordinating movements
• Microtubles and microfilaments – supporting
network of long protein fibers
• Provides an anchor for the organelles
Cells
Cytoskeleton
Cells
Nucleus
• Control center of the cell, the brain of the cell
• Contains coded directions, DNA, the heredity
information of the cell
• Surrounded by a double
membrane nuclear
envelope
• Chromatin is spread
throughout the nucleus
Cells
Cells
Nucleolus
• Within the nucleus
• Site of ribosome production
Ribosomes
• Ribosomes are the site of
protein synthesis
• Ribosomes are manufactured
in the nucleus and consist of
ribosomal RNA and protein
• Not bound by a membrane
Cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Stacks of flattened sacs of highly folded
membrane
• ER is connected to the nucleus
Cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough ER
• Contains ribosomes
• Aids in protein synthesis
Cells
Smooth ER
• No ribosomes
• Synthesis of carbs and
lipids
Cells
Golgi Apparatus
• Flattened stack of
tubular membranes
• Modifies proteins and
packages them for
distribution outside
the cell
Think of it as Fed Ex –
package and ship
Cells
Vacuoles
• Fluid-filled membrane sac
• Used to store food, waste products,
enzymes, and other materials
Vacuoles
• -Central vacuoles are large
bodies that store water
and occupies most of the
interior of plant cells
• -If the central vacuole runs
low on water, the plant will
begin to wilt
• -The central vacuole in
plants stores starch,
pigments, and toxic
substances
Cells
Lysosomes
• Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus that
contain digestive enzymes
– The cell’s stomach
• Breakdown excess or
worn-out cellular substances
• Digests waste, food, cellular
debris, and foreign invaders such as bacteria
and viruses
Lysosomes
Cells
Centrioles
• Made up of groups of microtubules
• Play a role in cell division, occur in pairs
Mitochondria
• Powerhouse of the cell
• Large surface area: outer and highly folded
inner membrane
• Breaks bonds in
sugar molecules to
provide energy for
the cell
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
• Specialized organelles found in plant cells
• Carry out photosynthesis, the process of
capturing energy from sunlight and
converting it into useable energy
• Thylakoid compartments containing
chlorophyll
Chloroplasts
Cells
Cell Wall
• Inflexible barrier that provides support and
protection
• Thick, rigid mesh of cellulose fibers
Cell wall
Cilia
• Short, numerous, hair like projections from
cell surface
• Aids in locomotion and feeding
• Also used to sweep substances
along surfaces
Section 3
Cellular Structure and Function
Flagella
• Longer and less numerous than cilia
• Create movement with a whiplike motion
• Aids in locomotion and feeding
• Typically on or two present
Flagella
Section 3
Cellular Structure and Function
Table 7.1 Summary of Cell Structure
Table 7.2 Summary of Cell Structure
Table 7.3 Summary of Cell Structure
Section 3
Cellular Structure and Function
Structures and Organelles
Plant and Animal Cell Structures
Structures only found in Plant
Cells
cells:
 Cell Wall
 Chloroplasts
 Central Vacuole