Download Life is “Cellular”

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

List of types of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Mitosis wikipedia, lookup

Cytokinesis wikipedia, lookup

Extracellular matrix wikipedia, lookup

Amitosis wikipedia, lookup

Organ-on-a-chip wikipedia, lookup

Endomembrane system wikipedia, lookup

Cell nucleus wikipedia, lookup

JADE1 wikipedia, lookup

Cellular differentiation wikipedia, lookup

Cell culture wikipedia, lookup

Cell growth wikipedia, lookup

Cell encapsulation wikipedia, lookup

Cell cycle wikipedia, lookup

Signal transduction wikipedia, lookup

Cytosol wikipedia, lookup

Cell membrane wikipedia, lookup

Cell wall wikipedia, lookup

Cytoplasmic streaming wikipedia, lookup

Flagellum wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
CHAPTER 7
CELLULAR STRUCTURE & TRANSPORT
(P.168-193)
Chapter 7, Section 1
(p. 169-173)
Life is “Cellular”
Cell Theory
• All living things are composed of cells
• Cells are the basic units of structure and
function in living things
• New cells are produced from existing cells
Microscopes
• Light microscopes
– Visible light
– Whole cells & larger organelles
• Electron Microscopes
– Electrons
– Smaller cellular structures
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Chapter 7, Section 2
(p. 174-181)
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Nucleus
• Contains DNA
– Instructions for
making proteins
• Nucleolus
– Ribosome
assembly
Nuclear Envelope
• Controls what
enters/exists the
nucleus
Cytoplasm
• Jelly-like substance
– Surrounds organelles
• Functions
– Movement of
materials
– Dissolved substances
– Maintains structure
Ribosome
• Receives instructions
from DNA
– Synthesizes proteins
for the cell
• “Free”
– Proteins stay in cell
• “Attached”
– Proteins shipped to
another organelle
or out of cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
• Contains
ribosomes
• Chemically
modifies newly
made proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
• No ribosomes
• Breaks down toxic
chemicals
• Synthesis of
membrane lipids
& steroids
Golgi Apparatus
• Sorts and
packages
proteins to send
to another
organelle or for
export out of the
cell
Lysosome
• Contains
enzymes
– Break down of
large molecules
Mitochondrion
• Converts energy
stored in food
molecules into
energy cell can use
– ATP
Cytoskeleton
• Made up of
– Microtubules
– Microfilaments
• Function
– Structural support
– Helps move
substances inside of
the cell
Centrioles
• Coordinates cell
division
• Organizes
cytoskeleton
• ONLY found in animal
cells
Central Vacuole
• Storage
– Water, toxins, sugars
• Provides internal
support to plant cell
by creating “turgor
pressure”
Chloroplast
• Site of photosynthesis
– Converts carbon
dioxide and water into
glucose
• ONLY in plant cells
Cell Membrane
• Controls what enters and exits the cell
Cell Wall
• Surrounds the cell
membrane
• ONLY in plant cells
– Structural support
– Made of cellulose
Chapter 7, Section 3
(p.182-189)
CELL BOUNDARIES
Phospholipid
Fluid Mosaic Model
• Phospholipid bilayer gives the membrane
structure and fluidity
Diffusion
• Movement of substances across a membrane
toward a state of equilibrium
– High  Low Concentration
– NO membrane protein required
– NO energy required
Diffusion of Gasses
Osmosis
• Diffusion of water
across a membrane
– High  low water
potential
– No membrane protein
– No energy required
• Plant cells are less
sensitive because of
their cell wall
Osmosis in Grapes
• Predictions:
• Observations:
Osmosis in Grapes
• Explanation:
Facilitated Diffusion
• Transport of substances that are large or
polar/charged across a membrane
– High  Low Concentration
– Membrane protein required
– NO energy required
Active Transport
• Movement of molecules across a membrane
against the concentration gradient
– Low  High Concentration
– Membrane protein required
– Energy required
Bulk Transport
Exocytosis
• Release of material from
the cell
Endocytosis
• Taking in of materials into
cell
– Vesicle fuses with cell
membrane
– Vesicle formed by cell
membrane
Low  High OR High  Low
ENERGY REQUIRED!