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Transcript
CELL ADAPTATIONS
Objectives:
• What is cell adaptations?
•Different types of cell adaptations
•Contractile vacuole
•Cilia
•Flagella
•Pseudo pod
•Eyespots
What is cell adaptation?

Changes made by a cell in response to
adverse environmental changes.
Types:
 Contractile vacuole
 Cilia
 Flagella
 Pseudo pod
 Eyespots
Contractile Vacuole(osmo regulation)
A
sub-cellular
structure (organelle)
involved
in
osmoregulation.
 Vacuoles
store
materials such as
water, salts, proteins,
and carbohydrates.
 Found in protists and
unicellular algae
 Paramecium contains
contractile vacuole.





Paramecium has two contractile
vacuoles, one at each end, which
fill and contract alternately.
By contracting rhythmically, this
contractile vacuole collects &
remove excess water out of the
cell, which helps to achieve
homeostasis.
In freshwater environments the
concentration of solutes inside
the cell is higher than outside the
cell
Under these conditions water
flows from the environment into
the cell by osmosis. Thus
contractile vacuole serves as a
protective
mechanism
that
prevents the cell from absorbing
too much water and possibly
exploding.

Freshwater
paramecia
when
placed in a brine
(salty) environment
will
use
its
contractile vacuole
to pump water out
of the cell. If the
paramecia
cannot
reach
equilibrium
immediately, it would
die.
Cilia





Are
hair
like
projections
Present in Paramecium
Used for feeding and
movement.
Cilia move the food to
the organisms interior
through mouth pore.
The food particles are
engulfed, forming food
vacuoles.
Flagella



Are
whip
like
structures that are
used for movement.
Found in prokaryotic
cells
and
some
eukaryotic cells
Function as a sensory
organelle,
being
sensitive to chemicals
and
temperatures
outside the cell.
Sponges carry out basic functions, such as feeding and circulation,
by moving water through their bodies.
 Choanocytes are cells that line the interior of sponges that
contain a central flagellum.
 Flagellate creates a water flow which then filters nutrients and
other food from the water, removing wastes from the sponge.
Food particles are then phagocytosed by the cell.

Pseudopods (False feet)
Are temporary
cytoplasmic
projections of
eukaryotic cells
membranes or
unicellular protists
 Pseudopods are used
for feeding and
movement.


.
An amoeba uses pseudo pods.
•The amoeba moves by first extending a pseudo pod
away from its body.
•The cytoplasm then streams into the pseudo pod.
EYESPOTS



Composed
of
photoreceptors
Possessed by plantlike
protists, like green
algae, euglenas
It helps the cells in
finding an environment
with optimal sunlight
for carrying out the
process
of
photosynthesis.
Euglena
Euglena responding to the moderate light