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5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
Cell cycle regulation is necessary for healthy
5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
Internal factors
• kinases change the activity of other molecules by adding
a phosphate group
• cyclins –are rapidly made and destroyed at different
points of the cell cycle. This helps cells advance to
different stages of the cells cycle.
External factors
• cell to cell contact
• growth factors which stimulate internal factors that affect
the cell cycle (cell division)
5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
Internal and external factors regulate cell division.
• External factors include physical and chemical signals.
• Growth factors are proteins that stimulate cell division.
– Most mammal cells form a single layer in a culture
dish and stop dividing once they touch other cells.
5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
• Carcinogens are substances known to promote cancer.
• Ex. Air pollution, tobacco smoke, mutated genes carried
by viruses.
• Standard cancer treatments typically kill both cancerous
and healthy cells.
5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
• Cancer cells do not carry out necessary functions.
• Cancer cells come from normal cells with damage to
genes involved in cell-cycle regulation.
5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
Cell division is uncontrolled in cancer.
• Cancer cells form disorganized clumps called tumorsdisorganized clumps of cancer cells that do not carry out
normal functions
– Benign tumors remain clustered and can be removed.
– Malignant tumors metastasize, or break away, and can
normal cell
5.3 Regulation of the Cell Cycle
• Apoptosis is programmed cell death.
– a normal feature of healthy organisms
– caused by a cell’s production of self-destructive
1.occurs in
webbed fingers
of infants
2.Helps rid the
body of
unhealthy cells