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Transcript
Ch. 11 Review Sheet
 Functions of the skeletal system
 Your body’s frame work is the skeletal system
 5 main roles

Provides support

Protects internal organs

Allows your body to move

Stores and produces materials that your body needs
 Support and Protection
 Skeleton is made up of all the bones in your body
 Gives basic shape and provides support as you move around throughout the day
 The center of your skeleton is your backbone

Consists of 33 bones called vertebrae.

Vertebrae supports your head and gives flexibility to your neck and back

Support and Protection
 Ribs and breast bone provide a protective cage around your heart and lungs
 Your backbone protects your spinal cord
 Your skull protects your brain.
 Movement
 Skeletal system allows you to move.
 Bones and Joints
 Skeletal system is made up of just over 200 bones.
 Joint is where two or more bones come together.
 Bones and joints work together every time you move.
 Development of Bones
 Your bones are living structures that undergo change throughout your life.
 As a newborn your bones were made of cartilage, a tough supportive tissue that is softer and
more flexible than bone.
 By young adulthood, most of this cartilage is replaced by bone in a process called ossification.
 Development of Bones
 During ossification, minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, are deposited within the
developing bone, making it hard.
 After ossification, cells in the bones continue to maintain and repair the tissue
 Development of Bones
 After ossification, cells in the bones continue to maintain and repair the tissue.
 When a bone is broken, cells would form new tissue to fill the gap between the broken ends.
 Eventually, the healed region containing new bone might be stronger than the original bone.
 Structure of Bones
 Bones consist of two different types of tissue, spongy and compact.
 Marrow fills the spaces in bones.
 Structure of Bones
 There are two types of marrow, red and yellow.
 Red marrow, found in the spaces of some spongy bone, produces many types of blood cells.
 On average, red marrow produces 100 billion blood cells every day.
 Yellow marrow, which can be found in the hollow centers of long bones, stores fat.
 Joints
 Allow for movement and protect bones from friction and force.
 Some joints are immovable, such as your skull.
 Most joints are moveable.
 Four different types of moveable joints.

Pivot joint

Gliding joint

Ball-and-Socket joint

Hinge joint
 Joints
 Pivot Joint:

Connects your head to the first vertebra in your backbone. It allows you to turn your
head from side to side.
 Gliding Joint:

Allow movements in many directions as the bones slide along each other. Wrists and
ankles contain gliding joints.
 Joints
 Ball-and-Socket joint:

Allows movement in all directions.

Shoulders and hips are examples.
 Hinge Joint:

Allows bending and straightening movements.

Knees and elbows are examples.
 Joints
 Bones are held together at joints by strong, fibrous bands called ligaments.
 A smooth layer of tough cartilage cushions and protects the ends of bones where they meet.
 Keeping Healthy
 Eating Well
 Adequate intake of Calcium and Phosphorus
 Potassium, magnesium, vitamins A, C, and D are also important for bone growth
 Exercising
 Builds strong bones and prevents osteoporosis.
 Activities where bones support the entire weight of your body help your bones grow strong and
dense.

Dancing, running, racquet sports, soccer, basketball, and lacrosse.

Avoiding Bone Injuries

One common injury of the skeletal system is a fracture, a break in a bone.

Simple Fracture- the bone may be cracked or completely broken in two pieces.

Compound Fracture- the broken ends of the bone pierce the skin.

Fractures are treated by putting the two broken ends back together.

Avoiding Joint Injuries

Your bones and joints are still developing.

Some injuries can lead/cause permanent damage.

Proper warm-up and stretching exercises are important to help prevent joint injuries.

Four types of joint injury:

Sprains

Dislocations

Torn Cartilage

Overuse injuries

Sprains

An overstretched or torn ligament.

Treatment may include ice to reduce swelling and pain relievers.

Severe sprains may require a brace or surgery.

Dislocations

The ends of the bones in a joint are forced out of their normal positions.

Treatment includes putting the bones back into their proper positions and held in place by a cast
or bandage until the joint heals.

Torn Cartilage

Series damage to the cartilage between the bones in a joint.

Knees are particularly susceptible to this injury.

Overuse Injuries

When an activity is performed too often or too strenuously, joints may become irritated and
inflamed.

Muscle in your Body

Three types of muscle in your body:
◦
Smooth muscle
◦
Cardiac muscle
◦
Skeletal muscle

Some are involuntary, which means they are not consciously controlled.

Other muscles are voluntary, which means they can be consciously controlled.

Types of Muscle

Smooth muscle:

◦
Involuntary and causes movements within the body.
◦
Wall of your esophagus and intestines.
◦
Blood vessels- help circulate your blood.
Cardiac muscle:
◦
Involuntary, and is found only in the heart.
◦
Allows your heart to beat and pump blood.

Types of muscle

Skeletal muscle:
◦
Muscles controlled to do activities (voluntary).
◦
Attached to the bones of your skeleton.
◦
A thick strand of tissue called a tendon attaches a muscle to a bone.
◦
Which type of muscle helps you move your jaw to chew your food?

How muscle works

All muscles do work by contracting, or becoming shorter and thicker.

Muscle cells, which are often called fibers, contract when they receive a nerve message to do so.

Muscle Tone

When a skeletal muscle is not contracting to cause movement, a few of its individual muscle
fibers are still contracting.

Muscle’s that cannot contract due to injury, or are not used often, will weaken and shrink, A
condition known as ATROPHY.

Keeping Healthy

Like your bones, your muscles get stronger the more you use them.

Working your muscles

Some types of exercise increases a muscle’s endurance How long it can contract without
tiring.

Other exercises, such as lifting weights, make individual fibers grow, which causes the muscles
to thicken and increase in strength.

Working your muscles

Anabolic steroids, artificial forms of the male hormone testosterone.

Avoiding muscle Injuries

Strains a painful injury that may happen when muscles are overworked or stretched too much
or too quickly. Sometimes muscle fibers rip, resulting in a torn muscle.

Tendonitis Overuse of tendons which leads to painful swelling and irritation. Tennis elbow is
an example.

Avoiding Muscle Injuries

Treatment usually includes rest, over-the-counter pain medication, and ice packs.

Your Nervous System

What is the Nervous system

It receives information about what is going on inside and outside of your body.

Then it processes the information and forms a response to it.

Neuron Structure

Neuron’s carry messages, or impulses, from one part of your body to another.

They consist of 3 basic parts: dendrites, a cell body, and an axon.

The junction where one neuron sends impulses to another neuron or another type of cell is
called a synapse.

Types of Neurons

Sensory Neuron:
◦
Information about your external and internal environment is gathered by sensory
neurons through your sense organs or other parts of your body.
◦
Phone ringing is one example.

Interneuron's

Located only in the brain and spinal cord, they pass impulses from one neuron to another.

When your phone rings inter neurons receive the messages from your sensory neuron’s about
the ringing noise.

Motor Neurons

By command of other neurons, motor neurons send nerve impulses to muscles and glands.

With the example of your ringing phone, interneuron's signaled thousands of motor neurons.

The motor neurons then signaled your muscles to pick up the phone.

Axon, Dendrite, Cell body, Myelin Sheath, Synapse.

Central Nervous System

The nervous system consists of two major divisions-the central nervous system and the
peripheral nervous system.

The CNS is the control center of the body.

It includes the brain and the spinal cord.

The brain

Moist, spongy organ that weighs about 3 pounds.

There are 3 major regions of the brain-the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.

The spinal cord

A thick column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the peripheral
nervous system.

Protected by vertebrae of the backbone.

Nerve impulses travel from the brain, through the spinal cord, and then out to the rest of the
body via spinal nerves.

In the opposite direction, impulses travel from parts of your body via spinal nerves to the spinal
cord, and then to the brain.

Reflexes

An automatic response to your environment is called a reflex.

In some reflex action, the actions of the skeletal muscles are controlled by the spinal cord onlynot the brain.

This helps protect your body from harm because they enable you to react very quickly.

Peripheral Nervous system

Includes the network of nerves that link the rest of your body to your brain and spinal cord
 The spinal cord is a thick column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the
peripheral nervous system.
 Nerve impulses travel from the brain, through the spinal cord, and then out to the rest of the
body via spinal nerves.
 The vertebrae surround and protect the spinal cord.
 The Central Nervous System:
Reflexes…
 Reflex is an automatic response of the nervous system to the environment.
›
Help protect your body
›
Spinal cord response
›
Reaches brain = PAIN
 Peripheral Nervous System
 The peripheral nervous system includes all the nerves that branch out from your brain and
spinal cord.
›
Sensory Division
›
Motor Division
 A nerve is a bundle or bundles of axons packaged with connective tissue.
 The PNS carries info to the central nervous system, and carries that response to the rest of the
body.
 The Peripheral Nervous System:
Sensory Division…
 Carry information from the external “outside environment” to the brain.
›
Ears, eyes, & other sense organs
 Sensory nerves deliver the information about the smell to the brain.
 Also, carries info from internal body conditions.
›
Blood pressure, heart rate
 Both internal & external send information to the Central Nervous System. (CNS)
 The Peripheral Nervous System:
Motor Division…
 Once the central nervous system (CNS) processes the information from the sensory nerves, the
motor division carries the response back to muscles.
›
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
›
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
 The Peripheral Nervous System: Motor DivisionSomatic Nervous System…
 Motor nerves carry signals that control voluntary actions
›
Chewing food, putting on a sock, raising your hand in class.
 The Peripheral Nervous System: Motor DivisionAutonomic Nervous System…
 Motor nerves here regulate things your do automatically… without thinking.
›
breathing rate, digestion
›
Crying,
 Keeping Healthy
›
Severe bumps to the head could cause your brain tissue to hit the skull, causing a
concussion
 A severe brain injury from trauma, disease, or drugs could possibly result in a coma, or a
prolonged period of unconsciousness.
 Avoiding spinal injuries
 Spinal cord injuries can result in paralysis, or the loss of the ability to move and feel some part
of the body.
 Paralysis, usually occurs when there is nerve damage.
 Peripheral nerves can be damaged as well.
 Common example of this is carpal tunnel
›
Playing a musical instrument, texting, typing, working as a cash register
 Symptoms include weakness and numbness in the fingers and pain that travels from the wrist to
the upper arm.
 Preventing Infections
 Meningitis causes inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
›
Symptoms are very similar to the flu, but also include stiff neck and severe headache.
 Epilepsy
 Under certain conditions, a person’s brain may experience sudden, uncontrolled nerve impulses.
This can lead to a seizure.
 People with epilepsy are prone to having seizures.
 Symptoms of epileptic seizures include:
 Facial twitching, loss of awareness, and muscle spasms.