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Transcript
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF
Permanent Behavior Change based on
Practice and Experience
Unconditioned
Response
Conditioned
Response
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Conditioned
Stimulus
Superstitions
Association of
Stimulus and
Response
Pavlov
How are the actions in this photo evidence of
Classical Conditioning?
Reward or
Punishment
Skinner
Fixed Interval
- Set length of time must pass for reinforcement to occur
- West Wing, Wednesdays 9:00 pm
Variable Interval
- Steadiest response, never know when reinforcement will be offered
- Teacher wanders the room offering praise
Fixed Ratio
- Behavior reinforced after performed set number of times; consistent behavior
- Make 30 widgets to fulfill quota and receive full pay
Variable Ratio
- Occasional rewards following changing number of actions; Fast, frequent
response to increase reward rate
- Playing slot machine
Piaget
Schema
Assimilation
Accomodation
Human Information Processing
(HIP)
Meaningfulness
Transfer (situated learning)
Chemical Influences (stimulants, depressants)
Thinking, Memory Formation, Learning, Problem Solving
Albert Bandura
Direct or Vicarious Experience
“Bobo” and Aggressive Behavior
Factors:
• Attention: what parts of behavior
is the observer watching?
• Retention: How is information
stored? What associations are
made?
• Motor Reproduction Processes:
physically capable of imitation
• Motivation: reinforcement for
behavior or observing original
performer of behavior reinforced
Factors
Emotional Influences:
moderate arousal beneficial
(curiosity, humor, fear, anxiety)
Evolutionary Influences (selectionism):
brains contain all cognitive processes at birth
and are initiated by environmental situations
Cultural Validity (cross-cultural behavior):
Cultural Value: value placed on learning
Perpetual Processes: sensory ability
Intelligence: practical sense, adaptability