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Crystal and Hanz 
Learning: Principles and
Social Learning
– Form of learning in which the
organism observes and imitate the
behavior of others
Neutral Stimulus
– Doesn’t initially elicit a response
Token Economy
– Conditioning in which desirable behavior
is reinforces with valueless objects,
which can be accumulated and
exchanged for valued rewards
– The gradual disappearance of a
conditioned response when the
conditioned stimulus is repeatedly
presented w/o the unconditioned
Variable Ratio
– Schedule of reinforcement in
which an unpredictable # of
responses are required before
reinforcement can be obtained
Memory and Thought
– Transforming of information so the
nervous system can process it
Maintenance rehearsal
– A system for remembering
involving repeating information to
oneself w/o attempting to find
meaning in it
– The process of grouping items to
make them easier to remember
– The fading away of memory over
– Blockage of a memory by
previous or subsequent memories
Mnemonic devices
– Techniques for using associations
to memorize and retrieve info
Set – point
– The weight around which your
day-to-day weight tens to fluctuate
Elaborate Rehearsal
– Memory device that creates a
meaningful link between new info
and material that is already known
Types of Memory
Iconic Memory
– the sensory register that
briefly holds mental images of
visual stimuli
Echoic Memory
– The sensory register in which
traces of sounds are held and
may be retrieved within
several seconds
Thinking and Language
– Mentally rearranging the
elements of a problem to
arrive at an original solution
– The sudden realization of the
solution to a problem
– The communication of ideas
through symbols and sounds
that are arranged according to
– The awareness of one’s own
cognitive process
– The capacity to use info
and/or abilities in a new and
original way
– The ability to over come
Motivation and
– Innate tendencies that
determine behavior
– The tendency of all organism
to correct imbalances and
deviations from their
normal state
– An external stimulus, reinforcer, or
reward that motivates behavior
Fundamental Needs
– Biological drives that must be
satisfied to maintain life
Psychological Needs
– The urge to belong and to give and
receive love, and the urge to acquire
– A state of feeling that involves a set
of complex reaction to a stimulus
involving subjective feelings,
physiological arousal, and
observable behavior
The End
We’d both like to
thank Mr. Wipf for
making this year in
Psych class so
much fun! We both
learned a lot.