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Lecture 3 - Learning to make your brain happy
Pavlov and salivating dogs. The basic Classical Conditioning paradigm
stimulus (US)
response (UR)
response (CR)
stimulus (CS)
Is the a conscious association?
There are constraints on the formation of these associations:
1. You have to notice the CS -> US relationship (e.g. Overshadowing)
2. The CS must predict the US: Contingency is important
3. All associations are not equivalent: (e.g. Taste Aversion)
Preparedness (revisited)
4. Timing is critical
The Operant Conditioning paradigm
Remember the Law of Effect
Superstitious behavior
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement (is not the same as punishment)
Skinner and schedules of reinforcement
Fixed ratio
Fixed interval
Variable ratio
Variable interval (If I skip this, be sure to get it from the book!)
Behaviorism (what is it?)
"I believe that we can write a Psychology; define it as...the science of behavior... and never
go back upon our definition: never use the terms consciousness, mental states, mind,
content, introspectively verifiable, imagery, and the like... It can be done in terms of habit
formation, habit integration, and the like." {Watson Psych Rev., 1913, 20, 158-77}
Behaviorism swept away the introspectionist schools of American psychology
(Structuralism and Functionalism) Why?
Why aren’t we all behaviorists today?
What is the status of this sort of learning today?
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