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Name _______________________________________________________ Period: __________ Date: _________________ AP Bio. Chapter 11 Note Stems: Cell Communication (Cells - Membranes) 1. 11.1 external signals are converted to responses within the cell a. evolution of cell signaling explain figure 11.2 c. What are G protein coupled receptors? d. What are G proteins? b. what is signal transduction pathway c. Explain communication among bacteria d. What is local signaling e. What are Receptor tyrosine kinsases? f. What are Ion channel receptors? e. What is long distance signaling g. What are Intracellular receptors? 2. Three stages of cell signaling: Explain them. a. Reception b. Transduction c. Response 3. 11.2 reception: a signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein causing it to change shape a. What is a Ligand? b. What do receptors in the plasma membrane do? 4. 11.3 Transduction: cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell a. What are signal transduction pathways and what do they generally lead to in a cell? b. What is Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and what is its importance in the cell? Name _______________________________________________________ Period: __________ Date: _________________ AP Bio. Chapter 11 Note Stems: Cell Communication (Cells - Membranes) c. What do Protein phosphatases do? c. Explain the specificity of cell signaling and coordination of the response, give specific examples d. What are Second messengers? e. What are the two most widely used second messengers? d. Explain scaffolding proteins f. What does Adenylyl cyclase do? g. What is the relationship between Calcium ions and inositol trisphosphate or (IP3)? h. Describe the maintenance of calcium ion concentrations in an animal cell 5. 11.4 Response: cell signaling leads to regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities a. Explain nuclear and cytoplasmic responses b. What is signal amplification and what is its advantage? e. What is the importance of termination of a signal?