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Biology A - Final Review 1. Define hypothesis and give an example of one. 2. Define invasive species. 3. Give examples of how invasive species happen. 4. What is the relationship between invasive and the native species they interact with? 5. During the carbon cycle, in what form are carbon atoms generally returned to the atmosphere? a. simple sugars c. methane b. carbon monoxide d. carbon dioxide 6. Which is not a pathway by which plants obtain nitrogen? a. Chemical fertilizers b. lightning c. photosynthesis d. symbiotic bacteria 7. Compare and contrast immigration and emigration. 8. Write an equation for population growth rate. 9. List three consequences of increased human population. 10. Define trophic level. 11. In terms of biogeochemical cycles, how are humans contributing to the increased release of greenhouse gases? 12. What is the difference between greenhouse effect and climate change? 13. How is climate change affecting biomes? 14. How does the pH scale work? 15. Which limiting factor is density independent? a. disease b. drought c. competition d. food supply 16. What are forest fires, temperature fluctuations, and floods examples of? a. biotic, density dependent factors b. biotic density independent factors c. abiotic, density dependent factors d. a biotic density independent factors 17. Describe how enzymes affect reactions. 18. A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is a(n) . a. Family c. Species b. Organization d. community 19. What is an organic compound? 20. According to the energy pyramid below, which organisms are the primary consumers? Algae mosquito larvae frogs raccoons 21. What does the pyramid of biological magnification illustrate? A. Higher trophic carnivores eat very little food. A. Toxic substances increase as trophic levels increase in a food chain. B. Acid precipitation destroys underwater habitats. C. The process of eutrophication destroys underwater habitats. 22. Which statement would not be included in a summary of the cell theory? a. The cell is the basic unit of organization. b. All cells contain a nucleus that controls cell division. c. All organisms are made up of at least one cell. d. All cells come from other, preexisting cell. 23. Give three examples of carbohydrates. (i.e. glucose) 24. What is the difference between scientific theory and scientific law? 25. What is the difference between quantitative data and qualitative data? 26. On a laboratory exam, a student is asked to determine if the cells under a microscope are plant cells or animal cells. What might the student look for? a. chloroplasts and a cell wall c. a nucleus and ribosomes b. ribosomes and vacuoles d. a cell membrane and mitochondria 27. The diagram below represents a cell in water. Explain why more water is moving out of the cell than into the cell. A. B. C. D. The concentration of solute in the cell is higher than it is outside the cell. The concentration of water outside the cell is too great. The concentration of solute outside the cell is higher than it is inside the cell. The concentration of water inside the cell is too great 28. Which movement of substances through a cell membrane against a concentration gradient requires energy? a. osmosis b. diffusion c. active transport d. facilitated diffusion 29. The process of photosynthesis converts which type of energy to chemical energy? a. heat b. light c. kinetic d. potential 30. Which is a product of photosynthesis? a. ATP b. glucose c. water d. carbon dioxide 31. The equation below represents a biological process? Where is this process completed? CO2 + H2O ----> C6H12O6 + O2 a. mitochondria c. cell membranes b. ribosomes d. chloroplasts A student wants to test how fast a plant grows using different fertilizers. They set up 3 different plants. Each plant has 3 corn seeds and uses the same soil from the same bag. The pots are set in the sun where they all receive the same amount of sun. The student waters the plants every day using the same amount of water at the same time. Two of the plants get 2 different fertilizers in their water. Use the previous paragraph to answer the following questions. 32. What is the control? 33. What is/are the independent variable(s)? 34. What is the dependent variable? 35. List 1 constant in the experiment. 36. How much energy gets passed on in each level in an energy pyramid? 37. What happens to a food web if we remove the producers? 38. What happens to a food web if a toxin is introduced to an ecosystem? 39 – 42. Label the organisms below as producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, or decomposer. Fungi Grass Deer (only plants) Cougar (only meat) 43. Define autotroph. 44. Define heterotroph. 45 – 47. Fill in the chart telling whether a species benefits or is harmed. Symbiotic Relationship Species 1 Species 2 Mutualism Benefits Commensalism Neither Parasitism Harmed 48. Ticks, leeches, and fleas are examples of what kind of species relationships? 49. A bird pollinating a flower is an example of what kind of species relationships? 50. The lynx and hare is an example of what kind of species relationships? Use the graph below to help you answer the next 2 questions. 51. How does the size of the lynx population affect the hare population? 52. Describe what would happen to the hare population if there were no predators. 53. List two sources of carbon. 54. Identify 2 density independent factors. 55. Identify 2 density dependent factors. 56. List and describe the 4 macromolecules. a. b. c. d. 57. Describe the key and lock model for enzymes. What happens when the active site is altered? 58-62. Match the words to the correct definition. ____ Builds/creates molecules A. Anabolic ____ Breaks a parts molecules B. Catabolic ____ Releases heat C. Activation energy ____ Uses heat D. Exothermic ____ Energy needed to start a reaction. E. Endothermic 63. List 2 factors that affect enzymes. 64. What invention helped in the discovery of cells? 65. List the 3 parts to the cell theory. a. b. c. 66 – 70. Match the correct organelle to its function. ____ Makes energy for the cell A. Ribosomes ____Site of photosynthesis (also energy for the cell) B. Chloroplasts ____ Contains the DNA C. Mitochondria ____2 kinds, rough and smooth D. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) ____Site of protein synthesis E. Nucleus 71. List 2 things that plant cells have that animal cells do not have. A. B. 72. Unlike Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells have no ____________________ or __________________________. 73. Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description. Description Isotonic Solution Hypotonic Solution Hypertonic Solution A solution that has the same osmotic concentration as a cell’s cytoplasm A solution that causes a cell to shrivel A solution that causes a cell to swell 74. In diffusion, molecules tend to move from areas of _________ concentration to _______ concentration. 75. What is required for active transport? 76. Draw a food chain and label each organism as producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, or decomposer. 77. Draw and describe an energy pyramid, specifically how population sizes relate to each level. Label the levels and how much energy gets passed to each level. 78. List 3 characteristics or structures that all cells share. 79. Distinguish between osmosis and diffusion. 80-85. Choose the best answer (some may be used more than once, some not at all). ____ water moving across the plasma membrane A. osmosis ____ Occurs when substances move against the concentration gradient, requires energy ____ Plasma membrane surrounds a large substance inside the cell and moves it outside the cell ____ Movement of molecules down a concentration gradient (high to low concentration) B. exocytosis C. facilitated diffusion D. dynamic equilibrium E. Active transport F. Passive diffusion ____ Moves molecules across the plasma membrane using transport proteins 86. Write the equation for photosynthesis. 87. Write the equation for respiration. 88. Respiration makes energy for our cells to use. What do we call the molecule? 89. List the 3 stages/steps of respiration. a. b. c. 90. Draw a table that compares plant cells, animal cells and bacteria. 91. Which organism(s) is an autotroph? 92. Which trophic level would you put the lizard in? 93. Which organism would have the lowest population?