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Transcript
The Cell
The basic unit of all living things
1
Robert Hooke was the first to
name the cell (1665)
2
The Cell Theory
• The cell is the unit of Structure of all
living things.
The cell is the unit of Function of all living
things.
All cells come from Pre-existing cells.
3
Two Major Cell Types
Prokaryotic cells
– (Streptococcus,
E.coli, etc.) NO
NUCLEUS
Eukaryotic cells.
These include:
plants, animals,
fungi, protists
HAVE A
NUCLEUS
4
ANIMAL CELL
5
PLANT CELL
6
CELL MEMBRANE
CELL MEMBRANE: All cells are covered by a cell
membrane; it regulates what comes in and goes
out of the cell .
Also Called the PLASMA MEMBRANE
Found in both plant and animal cells
7
Cell Membrane also called the
Plasma Membrane
8
CYTOPLASM
Cytoplasm – jelly like substance that
fills cells; made of mostly
water; holds the organelles
Found in plant and animal cells
9
NUCLEUS
Nucleus – contains the cell’s DNA and is
the control center of the cell
Found in both plant and animal cells.
10
RIBOSOME
Ribosome – the site where amino acids
are hooked together to make proteins
This is the site of Protein Synthesis
Found in both
plant and animal
cells
11
ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
-found
in both plants and
animals
• System of Channels that
transport proteins in a cell. Some
reactions take place on the
surface
• Two types Rough-with Ribosomes
on them and Smooth- no
ribosomes on them
12
GOLGI BODIES
Responsible for
labeling, sorting
and packaging
chemicals
(proteins) and
secreting
(releasing) them
from the cell
13
VACUOLES
Vacuoles – store water and
other materials
Found in both plant and animal
cells
Plants have very large vacuoles.
Animals have small vacuoles
14
Food Vacuole
15
LYSOSOME
Lysosomes – digest food
particles, wastes, cell
parts and foreign
invaders. They have such
powerful enzymes they
can destroy a whole cell.
Example: Tadpole’s tail.
Found in animal cells
16
Mitochondria – Makes Energy for Cell .
Energy is also called ATP
Site of Cellular Respiration
It takes in oxygen and glucose and releases
Carbon dioxide , water and ATP
Found in both plant and animal cells.
17
Some Organelles are only
found in Plant Cells
•Do you know which ones?
18
CELL WALL
Cell Wall – the cell wall gives
structure and support to the cell
membrane.
Only found in plant cells
19
CHLOROPLASTS
All plant cells contain Chloroplasts. They are
the
organelle responsible for _photosynthesis_
which uses the sun to make glucose(sugar).
Chloroplasts are green due to a pigment
called chlorophyll.
Only found in plant cells
20
There is one organelle found
only in Animal Cells….
• Can you name it?
The Centrioles
These are necessary for
Animal cell Division. Plants
manage without them.
21
COMPARISON OF
ORGANELLES TO ORGAN
SYSTEMS
ORGANELLE
ORGAN
ORGAN
SYSTEM
NUCLEUS
BRAIN
CELL
MEMBRANE
LYSOSOME
LUNGS
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
RESPIRATOR
Y SYSTEM
DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM
EXCRETORY
SYSTEM
CELL
MEMBRANE
STOMACH
KIDNEY
23
LINKING HOW
ORGANELLES WORK
TOGETHER
• NUCLEUS CONTROLS THE RATE OF
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY RIBOSOMES
• CELL MEMBRANE REGULATES THE
PASSAGE OF OXYGEN INTO THE CELL
TO BE USED BY MITOCHONDRIA
• AFTER A LYSOSOME DIGESTS OLD
ORGANELLES THE CELL MEMBRANE
RELEASES THEM OUT OF THE CELL
• THE GOLGI BODY PRODUCES
LYSOSOMES WHICH ARE USED TO
DIGEST BACTERIA
24
WRAP UP
1.
HEREDITARY INFORMATION IS
STORED INSIDE THE:
A. RIBOSOMES
B. NUCLEUS,
C. MITOCHONDRIA
25
WRAP UP
2. DIAGRAM TO THE
RIGHT REPRESENTS:
A. A CHLOROPLAST
CARRYING OUT
RESPIRATION
B. A LYSOSOME
CARRYING OUT
PHAGOCYTOSIS
C. A
MITOCHONDRIA
CARRYING OUT
RESPIRATION
26
WRAP UP
3. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION FOR
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN THE
HUMAN BODY FROM LEAST COMPLEX TO
MOST COMPLEX ARE:
A. CELLS-->TISSUES-->ORGANS->SYSTEMS
B. SYSTEMS-->ORGANS-->TISSUES->CELLS
C. CELLS-->ORGANS-->TISSUES->SYSTEMS
27
WRAP UP
4. STUDIES OF FAT CELLS AND THYROID
CELLS SHOW THAT FAT CELLS HAVE
FEWER MITOCHONDRIA THAN
THYROID CELLS. A BIOLOGIST
WOULD MOST LIKELY INFER THAT
FAT TISSUE:
A. HAS ENERGY REQIREMENTS
EQUAL TO THOSE OF THYROID
TISSUE
B. REQUIRES LESS ENERGY THAN
THYROID TISSUE
28
C. REQUIRES MORE ENERGY THAN
THYROID TISSUE