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Chapter 3 Study Guide
1. What is a cell?
Smallest unit that can perform all life processes
2. Who was the first person to observe cells?
Robert Hooke
3. What type of cells did he look at?
Cork cells
4. Why did it take so long to discover cells? What invention made their discovery
They were too small to see with the naked eye.
The microscope
5. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek found ____Protists________
6. What are the two types of cells?
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
7. What is the major difference between them?
Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus
Eukaryotes do have a nucleus
8. What is a difference between eubacteria and archaebacteria?
Archaebacteria is found in extreme environments
Eubacteria is everywhere you are
9. Name 3 differences between plant and animal cells.
Plant cells – Have a Cell Wall and Chloroplast (square)
Animal cells – Have Lysosomes (circular)
10. What are the four things all cells have in common?
1. Genetic Material
2. Cytoplasm
3. Cell Membrane
4. Organelles
11. Name the three parts of the cell theory.
1. All organisms are made up of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of life
3. All cells come from existing cells
12. Know the function of the organelles
a. Cell Wall – Supports the plant cell; Walls of the building
b. Cell Membrane- forms a barrier between the cell and it’s environment;
Door and windows
c. Cytoskeleton – Keeps the cell membrane from collapsing; Support beams
d.Nucleus – Contains the DNA; Controls the cell; Principal
e. Ribosomes – Make Proteins – ARE FOUND ON THE ER; Teachers
f. Endoplasmic reticulum – Internal delivery system; Where proteins, lipids and
other materials are made; Hallways
g. Mitochondria – Power source of the cell; electricity
h. Chloroplast – Where photosynthesis occurs -> makes food for the plant cell.
Kitchen or cafeteria
i. Golgi Complex – Packages and distributes proteins; office
j. Vesicle – A small sac that surrounds materials to be moved into or out of the
cell. Packaging materials
k. Lysosome – Contains the digestive enzymes in an animal cell; Janitors
l. Vacuole – Animal cell – Stores materials; water fountains
Plant cell – Stores material and holds the digestive enzymes.
13. 3 Benefits to being multicellular
1. Larger size
2. Longer life
3. Specialization
14. A group of cells working together to perform a specific job: Tissue
15. 2 or more tissues working together to perform a specific job: Organ
16. A group of organs working together to perform a specific job: Organ System
17. The job a part does: Function
18. How a part in an organism is built: Structure
19. Be able to identify a mitochondria and vacuole