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Leveraging national communications to integrate
climate change issues into development policy
Sub-Regional Workshop for GEF Focal Points in the Caribbean
Barbados, 16-18 June 2009
 Key climate change threats in the Caribbean
 Role of National Communications (NC)
 How to use the potential of NC projects to
integrate climate change into development and
sector policies
Projected increase in air temperature (°C) by region,
relative to the 1961–1990 period
0.60 to 2.19
0.81 to 3.85
1.20 - 7.07
0.48 to 1.06
0.79 to 2.45
0.94 - 4.18
Indian Ocean
0.51 to 0.98
0.84 to 2.10
1.05 - 3.77
Northern Pacific 0.49 to 1.13
0.81 to 2.48
1.00 - 4.17
Southern Pacific 0.45 to 0.82
0.80 to 1.79
0.99 - 3.11
Projected change in precipitation (%) by region,
relative to the 1961–1990 period
-52.6 to +38.3
-61.0 - +6.2
-35.6 to +55.1
-14.2 to +13.7
Indian Ocean
Northern Pacific
-5.4 to +6.0
-6.3 to +9.1
-6.9 to +12.4
-19.2 to +21.3
-9.8 - +14.7
-2.7 - +25.8
Southern Pacific
-3. 9 to +3.4
-8.23 to +6.7
-14.0 -+14.6
-36.3 to +34.2 -49.3 - +28.9
Key Impacts: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
 Sea-level rise is expected to exacerbate (High confidence)
other coastal hazards
 In the Caribbean and Pacific islands, more than 50%of the population
live within 1.5 km of the shore.
 International airports, roads and capital cities in the small islands of
are sited along the coast.
 Sea-level rise will threaten vital infrastructure, settlements and
facilities that support the livelihood of island communities.
Key Impacts: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
 There is strong evidence that under most climate change
scenarios, water resources in small islands are likely to
be seriously compromised (very high confidence).
 New studies confirm previous findings that the effects of
Climate change is likely to heavily impact coral reefs,
fisheries and other marine-based resources (high
 On some islands, especially those at higher latitudes,
warming has already led to the replacement of some
local species (high confidence).
Key Impacts: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
 It is very likely that subsistence and commercial
agriculture on small islands will be adversely affected
by climate change (high confidence).
 New studies confirm previous findings that the effects
of climate change on tourism are likely to be direct and
indirect, and largely negative (high confidence).
 There is growing concern that global climate change is
likely to impact human health, mostly in adverse ways
(medium confidence).
Hurricane Ivan struck Grenada on 7 September 2004:
Some key impacts:
• 28 people killed,
• overall damages calculated at twice the GDP,
• 90% of housing stock damaged; 90% of guest rooms in the tourism
sector damaged or destroyed, equivalent to approximately 29%
• losses in telecommunications equivalent to 13% GDP,
• damage to schools and education infrastructure equivalent to 20%
• losses in agricultural sector equivalent to 10% GDP,
• damage to eco-tourism resulting in 60% job losses in sub-sector.
Source: OECS (2004), modified from IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
What does this have to do with National Communications?
The Initial National Communication (INC) process
was important because:
 The INC was the first effort to summarize climate information
relating to GHG emissions and its key vulnerabilities
 The INC has generated awareness about Climate Change
issues and helped catalyze awareness of climate change
 The INC was the first point of reference for many
development partners to support CC mitigation and adaptation
activities in a country
 The focus was seen on ‘International Convention
reporting’ – Opportunities to channel information into nonenvironmental policy processes were lost
 The INC was conducted by technical experts, with limited
participation of other stakeholders from public and private
 Assessments and language was academic in formats not
very helpful to policy makers
Second National Communications (SNC): A second opportunity!
 Climate Change is more than environmental reporting – the
SNC process is relevant for all policy segments
 The SNC is a strategic policy support tool to highlight and
communicate Climate Change priorities
 Producing an SNC document not the end point. SNC
information can be used to map socio-economic
vulnerabilities, understand economic impacts of CC and
frame follow-up measures
SNC should be a vehicle to inform and facilitate:
 Institutional positions and responses to climate
change issues
 Continued analysis and review of climate data to
stay up-to-date on vulnerability dynamics
 Inter-ministerial dialogue to address primary
climate change concerns in national priorities
 Integration of climate risk reduction into sectoral
and development planning
How can countries make full use of SNC potential?
1) Ensure that the studies commissioned by the SNC
team address relevant policy questions
2) Ensure that the SNC does not work in isolation in the
Environment Department. Establish a platform to
share SNC information with other departments.
3) Make sure the mitigation and adaptation studies of the
SNC deliver information that is suitable for the
definition of follow-up measures (e.g. further
assessments, project formulation, fundraising)
How can countries make full use of SNC potential? (cont.)
4) Make sure the SNC highlights critical short-term and
long-term policy challenges and proposes some
options for priority sectors
5) Make sure the SNC process picks up existing capacity
gaps and opportunities in the country to understand,
analyze and address Climate Change issues
6) Make sure SNC work is complemented with targeted
awareness and communication actions for
public/private/policy stakeholders
Next steps
 Understanding the potential of SNC to provide policy
 Actively encouraging involvement and supporting input by
relevant government institutions
 Helping to make the SNC better visible
 Having a concrete follow-up for the SNC in mind
 Ensuring that all mitigation and adaptation assessments in
the SNC maintaining a human focus
Leveraging National Communications - Summary
1. National Communications:
process and outputs
Informed allocation of public /
private financing to resilient and
low-carbon economic growth
CC Adaptation and mitigation
priorities identified
2. CC Adaptation and Mitigation
platforms, plans and strategies
Priority CC projects identified
3. Adaptation financing and carbon
financing options explored to
undertake priority measures
Priority CC projects financed
Project lessons utilized in
national / sector plans
Institutional partnerships
developed & strengthened
Project lessons captured
and analyzed (M&E)
 How can GEF focal points help in making the
SNC more relevant to policy making?
 What role can GEF Focal Points play in
linking priorities that emerge from National
Communications with other GEF