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Transcript
Y13 IB Biology Revision
4.4.1 Basic
Biotechnology
methods (PCR,
DNA profiling,
gel
electrophoresis
Biotechnology
Bronze
Silver
Gold
I can state what
happens in gel
electrophoresis,
PCR, and DNA
profiling
I can Outline
the use of
polymerase
chain reaction
(PCR) and
describe two
applications of
DNA
profiling.
I can Analyse
DNA profiles to
draw conclusions
about forensic
investigations. I
can explain the
social
implications of
DNA profiling.
Definitions
Gel electrophoresis
PCR (polymerase chain reactions)
DNA profiling
Forensic Investigations
Outline of the process of Gel electrophoresis
Rearrange these steps in the correct order (the 1st is correct)

A sample of DNA pieces is placed in a well on the gel.




Fragments of DNA separate.
Negative fragments are moved to the
positive electrode.
Large fragments move more slowly than
small ones.
An electrical current is passed across the gel.
Carry out
LOOK COVER TEST CHECK on PCR
Outline of the process of PCR

PCR makes huge numbers of copies of a DNA sample
(amplification).

95°C temperature is used to separate DNA strands.

At cooler temperature DNA polymerase is used to build new
strands

This is an automated process – cycling hot and cool and can
produce a million copies of the DNA in 20 cycles.

Each cycle lasts about 4 minutes.
Outline of the process of DNA Profiling
Forensic Investigation:
 A specimen of DNA is taken from the the crime scene.
 PCR is used to amplify the sample.

DNA samples are taken from the 3 suspects.
DNA fragments are made using Restriction
enzymes
The fragments are separated using gel
electrophoresis.
The position (size of DNA fragments) of the
bands is compared

Interpretation:


Which suspect bands are matched by the bands on the
specimen? ………………….
I can say
4.4.6
what the
The human
human
genome
genome
project
project is.
I can discuss the
international
colaboration aspects, the
I can outline
discovery of great
three outcomes
genetic similarity of
of the
human genomes, and
sequencing of
how bioinformatics can
the complete
provide evidence for
human genome.
evolution, help in
determining the number
and function of genes
Definitions
Sequencing
Genome
Human genome project
Outline 3 beficial outcomes of the Human Genome Project
Discovery of the number of genes
Discovery of the function of genes
Other PAST PAPER Questions
Outline the process of DNA profiling (genetic fingerprinting), including ways in which it can be used.
(Total 6 marks)
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
sample of DNA obtained from mouthwash / hair / other named source;
satellite DNA / repetitive sequences used for profiling;
amplification of DNA by polymerase chain reaction / PCR;
cutting DNA into fragments using restriction enzymes;
separation of fragments of DNA (by electrophoresis);
separation according to the length of the fragments;
pattern of bands obtained / different pattern of bands with DNA
from different individuals;
used for criminal investigations / example of use in criminal investigation;
used to check paternity / who is the father / mother / parent;
used to check whether two organisms are clones;
(a)
6 max
Define the term degenerate as it relates to the genetic code.
..............................................................................................................................
(1)
(b)
Apart from international cooperation, outline two positive outcomes of the
Human Genome Project.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
(a)
more than one codon / base triplet codes for an amino acid
(b)
may lead to an understanding of genetic diseases;
may lead to the production of gene probes to detect carriers of genetic diseases;
may lead to the production of pharmaceuticals based on DNA sequences;
study of similarities / differences between human race;
find location of genes / produce a complete gene map;
1
I can state that the
genetic code is
universal, (genes
can be transfered
4.4.7genetic
from organism to
engineering.
organism.
I can give two
examples of GM
crops
I can outline
gene transfer
using
plasmids,
restriction
enzymes and
DNA ligase.
Definitions
Universal genetic code
GMO
Gene transfer
Restriction enzymes
DNA ligase
Outline benefits and harmful effects of genetic engineering.
I can discuss the
potential benefits
and possible
harmful effects of
one example of
genetic
modification.
Including ethical
and moral issues
and economic
benefits.
4.4.11cloning
I can outline a
technique for
I can define
cloning using
clone.
differentiated
animal cells.
I can discuss the
ethical issues of
therapeutic cloning
in humans.
Definitions
Cloning
Differenciated Animals
Therapeutic Cloning
Outline a technique for cloning
Ethical Issues with cloning
The other day I met a genetic engineer. His latest project is the mixing DNA from different species of birds.
First he combined the DNA from a pheasant and a hen. It worked! He called it a "Phen."
Next he successfully combined a pheasant and a goose. He called it a "Phoose”
Yesterday, he was able to mix a pheasant and a duck. He called it... "Carl"