Download Cell organelles you need to know for unit test

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Transcript
Cell organelles= parts of the cell
1. Cytoplasm-mostly made up of water, this jelly like organelle found inside the cell that holds all
the other cells in place.
2. Cell wall- Found only in plants it is a rigid structure that gives the cell its shape, it also provides
support which helps plants grow taller and stronger. Composed of cellulose.
3. Cell/Plasma membrane- surrounds and protects the cell. Made of up lipids and proteins and
contains pores or channels that allow materials to pass through. Called selectively permeable
because the cell membrane decides what can enter and exit through the cell.
4. Mitochondria-bean shaped organelle that is the site of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is
a process by which energy is released from glucose for the cell to use for its cellular activities.
Called the powerhouse of the cell.
5. Chloroplasts- Chloroplasts are specialized organelles that convert the sun’s energy into chemical
energy, a sugar called glucose, during the process of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll found in
the chloroplasts absorbs the light energy. Plants use this sugar to carry out the functions of the
cell. Found only in plants and some protists.
6. Ribosomes- Found both in the cytoplasm and on endoplasmic reticulum these organelles are
responsible for the production of protein molecules which are essential to the cell.
7. Nucleus- circular shaped organelle that controls all cellular activities like waste removal and
growth, contains DNA in the form of chromatin (long strands of DNA), surrounded by a
membrane and contains the nucleolus
8. Endoplasmic Reticulum or ER- Connected to the outside of the nucleus is a ribbon-like organelle
called the endoplasmic reticulum. As it stretches outward from the nucleus to the cell membrane,
this network of tubes acts like a pipeline as it makes, stores, and transports materials throughout
the cell. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum found in a cell. If the ER is studded with
ribosomes it is called rough ER. ER that does not have ribosomes attached to it is referred as
smooth ER.
9. Vacuoles- Located in the cytoplasm are small, round organelles called vacuoles. Vacuoles are
storage tanks in the cytoplasm. They can hold food that needs to be digested, wastes that need to
be removed or water. Animal cells will have several smaller vacuoles while plant cells have one
large central vacuole. The vacuoles in plants are filled with fluid and help maintain or keep the
shape and structure of the plant cell and plant. When plants are given sufficient water, water
collects in the vacuoles and gives the plant rigidity. Without sufficient water the amount of
liquid in the vacuoles decreases and the plant wilts.