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Transcript
7th Cells and Heredity (Module A)
Unit 1: Cells
Lesson 3 – Cell Structure and Function
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function
Being Eu-nique –
ha ha! Get it?
• Structure = arrangement of parts
• Ex. Cell membrane has a double layer of
phospholipids
• Function = activity of parts
• Ex. Cell membrane protects cell and regulates
what enters and leaves
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Unit
1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure
and Function
Characteristics
of eukaryotic
cells
• All eukaryotic cells have…
• Cell membrane (previous slide)
• Membrane-bound organelles
(next few slides)
• Cytoplasm – fluid-like substance that fills cell
contains
• Cytoskeleton –
network of protein
filaments that give
shape and support
cell
• Helps in cell
division and
movement
• Found
throughout
cytoplasm
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
Company
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function
All eukaryotic cells have (continued)…
• Nucleus – contains deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA)
• DNA has instructions for making proteins –
sends instructions out through pores in cell
membrane
• DNA in form of chromatin or chromosomes
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function
Organelles in plant and animal cells
• 1. Mitochondrion - “powerhouse of the cell”
• Perform cellular respiration –process where
cells break down food to get energy
• Have their own DNA & 2 membranes
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function
Organelles in plant and animal cells
(con’t)
• 2. Ribosomes - make proteins by putting together
chains of amino acids
• not enclosed in a membrane.
• some are “free” others attached to endoplasmic
reticulum.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Organelles in plant and animal cells
(con’t)
• 3. Endoplasmic reticulum
(a.k.a. ER) – helps make
proteins and lipids and
processes and moves proteins
• Rough ER - ribosomes attached
• Smooth ER – no ribosomes
• 4. Golgi complex packages / distributes
materials (lipids,
proteins) in a cell.
•5. Vacuole – used for storage
• In plants, may be large, filled with fluid, and
used to support cell
Animal cell
Plant cell
Let’s draw! Draw a cell with the following parts
• Nucleus
• Cytoskeleton
• Cytoplasm
• Nucleolus
• Golgi complex
• Mitochondria
• Endoplasmic reticulum
• Chromatin
• Vacuole
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Bonus Plant Cell Parts
• 1. cell wall-surrounds the cell membrane
• Rigid - provides support and protection
• Also in some fungi, archaea, bacteria, and protists
2. Chloroplast – where photosynthesis occurs
Photosynthesis is the process by which cells use sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water to make sugar and oxygen
Chloroplasts are green because of the green pigment chlorophyll
(absorbs solar energy)
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Cell Structure and Function
What additional parts are found in
plant cells?
• How does a chloroplast make food for a plant cell?
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Bonus Animal Cell Part
• 1. Lysosomes - contain digestive enzymes
• break down damaged organelles, waste material,
and foreign invaders.
• Can happen in vacuoles
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Your Misson
• Use a ruler and a pencil to mark strips
on a piece of paper that are 8 inches
long and 1 inch wide
• Use scissors to cut out each strip
• Use a pen or pencil to write the entire
alphabet on each strip
• Make the first loop in the chain and tape
it together
• Now make a chain by threading the
loops
When different cells do
different specific things
The advantage to being specialized is
cells can be more efficient &
effective when they are part of a
“team”
Group of
tissues
that work
together
Can carry out
life
processes
by itself
Group of
organs
that work
together
Smallest
unit of
living
thing
Group of
similar
cells that
work
together
Do unicellular organisms have levels of
organization?
NO! Only one cell to do all the things!
Arrangement
of parts
How something
works