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Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior – all of our outward or over actions and reactions Mental processes – internal, covert activity of our minds Psychology’s goals Description: observing a behavior and noting everything about it o What is happening, where it happens, to whom it happens, and under what circumstances it seems to happen Explanation: why is it happening? o Theory: a general explanation of a set of observations or facts Prediction: when will it happen again? Control: How can it be changed? - Psychology is 130 years old - Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – physiologist from Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. Did an experiment where students had to give thoughts on what he was feeling about a certain object - - - - Object introspection: the process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities Considered to be the “father of psychology” Edward Titchener (1867-1927) – Englishman student of Wundt o Structuralism: the focus of study is the structure of the mind or the basic elements o 1894 – one of his students became famous of becoming the 1st woman to receive a Ph.D in psych: Margaret F. Washburn 1908 – published a book on animal study The Animal Mind. o Structuralism died in the early 1900s William James – prof of Harvard o Published Principles of Psychology 1890 o Functionalism: how the mind allows people to function in the real world – how ppl work, play, and adapt o Influenced by Charles Darwin’s natural selection Mary Whiton Calkins, one of James’s student but denied of a degree o 1905 1st female president of the American Psychological Association, but didn’t earn the degree 1920 Francis Cecil Summer – 1st African American to earn a degree at Clark University o chair of the psych dep. at Howard University o considered the father of African American psychology Max Wertheimer, german psychologist o Gestalt psychology Gestalt means “an organized whole” or “configuration” Believes that perceiving and senses can not be broken down and still be properly understood Part of cognitive psychology today Sigmund Freud – Austrian neurologist o Believed that the repressed urges caused nervous disorders in his patients o Personality formed in the 6 years so if problems then mean it was early on o Freudian psychoanalysis: the theory and therapy based on freud’s ideas Basis of psychotherapy – a process in which a trained professional helps a person gain insights into and change his or her behavior Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist o Stimulus experiment with dogs and food/timing - conditioning psychologist John B. Watson o behaviorism – science of behavior; focus on observable behavior o believed all behaviors are learned o phobias are learned through process conditioning experiment: took baby named “Little Albert” and taught him fear a white rat by making a scary noise every he saw the rat until the baby just cried after seeing the rat Little Albert became afraid of other fuzzy things Mary Cover Jones – student of Watson’s and completed master’s in 1920 o Did again with “Little Peter” and a rabbit o Then counterconditioning Where Lil Peter watched the rabbit from a distance while eating his fave food The food made him happy and the rabbit was brought closer each time and he was no longer afraid Psychodynamic perspective: modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivations B.F. Skinner – operant conditioning o Behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are strengthened, or reinforced. Self-actualization – the achievement of one’s full potential o Earliest and most famous are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Cognitive psychology, which focuses on how ppl think, remember, store, and use information 1960s o Cognitive perspective – focus on memory intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem solving, language, and learning o Cognitive neuroscience – includes the study of physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes - - - - Tools to show the structure and the activity of the brain such as MRI, fMRI, PET Sociocultural perspective – combines social psychology (study of groups, social roles, and rules of social actions and relationships) and cultural psychology (study of cultural norms, values, and expectation). o How people behave are influenced by social norms and friends fads, ethnic and such o Cross-cultural research - contrasts and comparisons of a behavior or issue are studied in at least 2 or more cultures Darley and Latane o Presence of other people actually lessened the chances that a person in trouble would receive help Bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility Biopsychology – study of the biological bases of behavior and mental processes o Part of larger field of neuroscience: study of the physical structure, function, and development of nervous system Biopsychological perspective – human and animal behavior is seen as a direct result of events in t eh body - - - evolutionary perspective – perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share. - Psychologist: a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology o Besides counseling, can do research, teaching, designing equipment and workplace, and developing educational methods o Can be in health, sports, legal issues, business concerns, and design - Psychiatrist: a medical doctor who has a specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. - Psychiatric social worker: social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environment conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse. - Scientific method: a system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data o Perceiving the question o Forming a hypothesis (a tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations): Confirmation bias: a tendency to notice only things that agree with a certain view of the world o Testing the hypothesis o Drawing conclusions - - - - o Reporting your results Replication in research: repetition of a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results Empirical questions are those that can be tested through direct observation or experience Naturalistic observations: watching animals or humans in their natural environment/situations o Observer effect: a tendency to behave differently from normal when knowing that one is being observed o Participant observation: a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed o Observer bias: tendency of observers to see what they expect to see o Blind observers: people who do not know what the research is about so they shouldn’t have any preconceived notions about what they should see Case study: study of one individual in great detail o Disadvantages: can’t really apply results to other people since people are different and can be biased Surveying o Representative sample: randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects o Population: the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested o Courtesy bias: where people give socially correct answers than their true opinion to not offend anyone Correlation: a measure of the relationship between two variables o Variable: anything that can change or vary o Correlation coefficient: a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation Represented by the small letter r Will either get a positive or a negative number If positive, the two variables increase/decrease in the same direction If negative, the two variables will have an inverse relationship – one increase, the other decreases Strength of the relationship between variables will be an actual number Will always ranged between +1.00 and -1.00 On a scatterplot The closer the number is to zero, the weaker the relationship is o Correlation does not mean causation Experiment: a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships - - o Operational definition: definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured o Independent variable: variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experiment o Dependent variable: variable in an experiment that represents the measureable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment Confounding variables: variables that interfere with each other and their possible effects on other variable of interest Experimental group – subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable Control group – subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment Random assignment: process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control group randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group Placebo effect: the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in the a study can influence their behavior Experimenter effect: tendency of the experimenter’s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study Single-blind study: study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group Double-blind study: study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group EXPERIMENT:: Wesleyan University Matthew Jameson, Robert Diehl, and Henry Danso 2007 o 72 male college athletes were given an intellectual test o ½ were given a question before and the other after; the question “rate your likelihood of being accepted to the university w/o the aid of athletic recruiting” o the before group scored lowered than the after group institutional review boards: where groups of professionals look over studies and judge whether it is safe enough to carry out or not o rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study’s value to science – people come first and then research o participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation have to explain the study to the people they want before doing anything – informed consent even in a single- or double-blind studies, o deception must be justified – after the experiment if there are deceptions, the participants have to be told why it was important – debriefing o participants may withdraw from the study at any time o participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks o investigators must debrief, telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results o data must remain confidential - - o if for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences for the participant, the researcher is responsible for detecting and removing, or correcting, these consequences Animal experimentation is very important as some experiments are not able to be performed on humans o They’ll try to not expose animals to any unnecessary pain or suffering o Animals are used in only about 7% of all psychological studies Critical thinking: making reasoned judgments about claims o There are very few “truths” that do not need to be tested o All evidence is not equal in quality o Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot of expertise does not make everything that person claims automatically true o Critical thinking requires an open mind.