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1. How can the humanistic movement be seen as a
“revolt” against both the behaviorists and the
followers of the psychoanalytic approach?
•The movement claimed
that the other
approaches failed to
recognize the unique
qualities of human
•The other approaches
suggested that people
are not masters of their
2. Why is the humanistic approach considered
to have an optimistic view of human nature?
•It sees humans as
unique beings, “not
pawns of either their
animal heritage or
3. What do Maslow and Rogers see as the
keys to understanding human behavior?
•Human behavior is
governed by an
individual’s sense of
•Fundamental human
drive toward personal
growth – to evolve as a
human being
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers
4. In what areas has the humanist
approach made the greatest contribution?
•Innovative treatments for
problems and disorders
5. Why did WWII have such a great impact
on the growth of clinical psychology within
the domain of applied psychology?
•Clinicians were
needed to screen
military recruits, to
treat soldiers
suffering from
trauma, and to help
6. Why do cognitive theorists feel that it is
important to study internal mental events?
•People’s manipulation of
mental images must
affect behavior; just
studying observable
behavior is incomplete
•Methods have been
devised that can study
cognitive processes
7. How is the cognitive approach related
to psychology’s “roots”?
•It studies
“consciousness” in
a scientific manner
•An updated
version of
structuralism and
8. How does the biological approach go
about explaining most behavior?
•In terms of the
bodily structures
and biochemical
processes that
allow organisms
to behave
9. Why has Western psychological
research and theory focused on middleand upper-class white males?
•Cross-cultural research
is costly, difficult, and
•Cultural comparisons
may inadvertently foster
•Ethnocentrism (viewing
your own group or culture
as superior)
10. What is the basic premise of evolutionary
•Natural selection
favors behaviors
that enhance
•Patterns of
behavior evolve in
the same manner
as anatomical
11. How might an evolutionary
psychologist explain why men are more
likely to cheat on a spouse than women?
•Men have a drive to
spread their genes to the
greatest number of
•Women must be more
selective, and must
invest more time on each
12. What are some criticisms of
evolutionary psychology’s approach?
•It is un-testable
•The explanations are
post hoc (In or of the form of
an argument in which one event
is asserted to be the cause of a
later event simply by virtue of
having happened earlier) and