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Human Motivation Chapter 2 Components of Motivation Components of Motivation Biological component Learned component Cognitive component Behavior is caused by an interaction of biological, learned, and cognitive processes: brain circuits are activated, learned responses are triggered, and control is taken by making plans. ***Throughout this course, we will look at human motivation using these three components. The Biological Component Main focus on the structure/design of the brain Evolutionary theory Assumes our brain today is a result of years of experiences and learning. Brain is made up of number of systems that work together with the body to produce our actions. Humans have two central complementary drives (minds): self-preservation and the preservation of the species. The Biological Component Temperament Refers to how we react to the world (reactivity) and how we self-regulate ourselves (self-control) in the face of certain environmental demands. (Our predisposition to act one way or another.) High activity (preference for intense stimulation and like of risk-taking) Negativity (fearful/sad and angry when frustrated) Regulation of attention/behavior (effortful control) The Big Five: Personality Factors- extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. The Biological Component Scientists use monozygotic/dizygotic twin studies to determine whether behavior is caused by genes. The brain triggers emotions/feelings > motivates us to act. Brain circuits: structures work together with one another with connecting pathways that are aroused simultaneously. Each emotion has a distinct brain circuit. The Biological Component Approach/Avoidant Motivation Brain Circuits Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Activated by conditioned signals or rewards and nonpunishment, arousal is enhanced to promote increased approach behavior. Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) Activated by conditioned signals of punishment and nonreward, as well as novel stimuli, arousal is enhanced to inhibit ongoing behavior. Pleasure/Punishment Motivation Brain Circuits The Reward Pathway Reward centers are stimulated when positive responses occur. Humans are motivated to perform actions that produce positive feelings. Done through combination of dopaminergic pathways and limbic system. The Biological Component Limbic system: set of interconnected structures deep within the brain that regulates emotions such as fear, love, and anger. Helps in adaptation of environmental demands. Plasticity: whether the basic structure of the brain can be altered as the result of certain experiences or thought processes. Synapses: gaps that separate short lengths of nerve fibers in which neurotransmitters are released and carry information. Neurotransmitters: chemicals that carry information across the synapse. Norepinephrine/serotonin/dopamine: high levels = euphoria, low levels = depression The Learned Component What we learn is governed by a large degree by attention. Attention: focus sensory receptors on source of information and analyze (attending); focus on given source and selectively process (selective attention); and organize the information. Attention is governed partly by motivational processes. Associative learning: (S-R learning) the connection or association of stimuli and responses. Depends on receptor orientation and selective attention. Deliberate (intentional) or incidental (passive) learning. The Learned Component Classical Conditioning: In this type of learning, the CS (conditioned stimulus) becomes a signal that the UCS (unconditioned stimulus) is about to be presented. The UCR (unconditioned response) is automatically elicited by the UCS (unconditioned stimulus). The CR (conditioned response) is typically weaker, but is the same response. Crucial for adaptive behavior. Associations are formed not only between the US/CS, but also between the events and the situations in which the conditioning takes place. Instrumental Learning: In this type of learning, the S (stimulus) becomes the signal to perform a R (response). Getting the R to occur may require shaping. Organisms learn that certain environmental events, such as receiving rewards/punishments, depend on their own behavior. A nonrewarded response will eventually diminish in rate or strength (extinction). The Learned Component Social incentive theory: positive (rewarding) experiences often occur when we do what others want us to do. Seeking approval and avoiding disapproval are assumed to be central motivators for people. Learned component of motivation has its roots in this theory. Children learn a great deal through imitation and observation. We are intrinsically motivated to learn about our environment. The Cognitive Component Cognition involves thinking, perceiving, abstracting, synthesizing, organizing, or otherwise conceptualizing the nature of the external world and the self. Cognitive theories are framed in terms of having or developing cognitive structures that allow us to make sense of the complexity of the world. Cognitive processes help us summarize and reduce the amount of information we encounter by finding higher-order relationships, structures, principles, and rules. Cognitions are based on past learning (beliefs and attitudes are developed by imitating/modeling parents) or from cognitive processes (active construction). Many beliefs, attitudes, and values are based on our own experiences and desires. The Cognitive Component Assimilation: children will process information by whatever structures they have. Disequilibrium: experienced confusion or incomprehension about the world that motivates a child to develop new cognitive structures to make sense of the complexity (accommodation). Categories: allow us to summarize complex information into more generic forms, freeing us from having to keep track of endless pieces of specific information. Generalization: tendency to simplify a response learned in one situation to other situations. (Example: stereotypes) Habits: result from a repetition of some response or sequences of responses. Automatic behavior: repeating behavior over and over until one not longer needs to think about intentions. (Example: driving car) The Cognitive Component Cognitive dissonance theory: humans are inclined to process information to be consistent with existing categories, beliefs, attitudes, values, stereotypes, and behavior, ignoring information that does not fit. Implicit theories: hypotheses, models, and beliefs about the nature of the external world (world theories) and about what we need to do to satisfy our desires in this world (self theories). Often exist at preconscious level and often involve more irrational and intuitive thinking. Attribution theory: how humans come to perceive the causes of behavior; reasonable explanations. Locus of control theory (internal vs. external causes of behavior): Internals: cause of behavior lies within self Externals: cause of behavior lies outside self Components Example: Motivation for Running Biological component: Stimulates output of several chemicals (Example: increase in norepinephrine = elation/euphoria) Learned component: A rewarding activity that helps many people cope with anxiety, depression, stress, fatigue, etc. Cognitive component: Benefits of exercise- decrease likelihood/progression of number of health disorders, reduce cholesterol, increase immune response, slow down aging process, etc.