Download 05-cognitive-load

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Cognitive Load Theory
Cognitive Load Theory
• John Sweller
• CAFÉ Toolkit
• Dr Raina Mason
Model of memory
• Sensory memory is very short
• 0.5s for visual
• 3.0s for auditory
• Working memory
• 10 – 15 s
• Limited capacity
• Long-term memory
• Unlimited capacity and duration
Solve without using paper
+ 37
Solve without using paper
83 468 446
+ 93 849 937
• Grouping information makes it easier to remember
• 0422-293-804 is easier than 0422293804
• Using meaning to group information makes it easier
• Relating information to context makes it easier again
Attending to information
• To be encoded to long-term memory, information must first be
attended to, and processed by, working memory
Memorize the following rhyme:
• Twinkle twinkle little star, how I wonder what you are.
Memorize the following rhyme:
• Emus and elephants into the stew, rub turns your until it tummy blue.
Cognitive load
• Not about difficulty of task, but about “mental effort”
• Depends on context, individual
• Existing Schema
Element interactivity
• Relationships between elements also take space in working memory
• Example: Is the following statement true or false?
My fathers' brothers' grandfather is my grandfathers' brothers' father.
Offloading cognitive load
Kinds of Cognitive Load
• Intrinsic
• Due to the nature of the problem
Relevant to learning
• Germane
• Assimilation and accommodation of schemas
• Extraneous
• Imposed by the instructional material
Not relevant to learning
Effective learning
• Low cognitive load provides opportunity for learning
• When cognitive load exceeds our capacity, learning is ineffective
• It may be possible to make learning more effective by reducing
extraneous load
1. Working memory is extremely limited.
2. Long term memory is essentially unlimited.
3. The process of learning requires working memory to be actively
engaged in the comprehension of to-be-learnt content and the
encoding of such content into long term memory as schemas.
4. If the resources of working memory are exceeded during processing
then learning will be ineffective.
Implications for instructional design
• Organise information based upon advance organisers to promote a suitable
hierarchy to schemas.
• Activate existing schemas.
• Reduce extraneous cognitive load whenever practical.
• Utilise mixed visual and audio instructional designs to expand working
memory whenever practical.
• Promote germane activities which increase intrinsic cognitive load
whenever practical.
• Ensure working memory is not exceeded by total cognitive load.
• Cater for different levels of learner expertise.