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PSYC 2314 Lifespan Development Chapter 12 The School Years: Cognitive Development Remembering, Knowing, and Processing • Information-processing theory – – – – Sensory register Working memory Long-term memory Control processes Improvements in Memory • Selective Attention – Screen out distractions and concentrate on relevant information. • Memory Skills – Automatization: many mental activities become routine and automatic. • Processing Speed – Older children are quicker thinkers. Improvement in Memory • Knowledge Base – New knowledge becomes progressively easier to add. • Metacognition – Ability to identify appropriate cognitive strategies for solving particular problems, to monitor problem-solving performance, and to use external problem-solving aids. Stages of Thinking • Piaget’s theory of cognitive development – Concrete operational thought: when children begin to understand certain logical principles when they are applied to concrete operations. • Identity: the idea that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even when other characteristics are changed. • Reversibility: the principle that a transformation can be restored to its original state by undoing it. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Preconventional – Punishment and Obedient – Fair Play • Conventional – Social Expectations – Law and Order • Postconventional – Social contract – Universal Ethical Principles Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory • Emphasis on justice and reasoning is too narrow and restrictive • Reflect liberal, Western intellectual values • Biased toward males Learning and Schooling • In the vast majority of developing countries, fewer girls than boys attend primary school. • Less is generally demanded of girls and poor children, particularly in math and science. Interactive Teaching • Worldwide, teachers have become more encouraging of children’s efforts. Although the specific styles of education will vary, depending on teacher personality and cultural assumptions any developmental approach attempts to engage every student in the learning process. Communication skills • Code switching – Change from one form of speech to another. • Formal Code – Elaborated code, characterized by extensive vocabulary, complex syntax, and lengthy sentences. • Informal Code – Restricted code, uses fewer words, simpler syntax, and relies more on gestures and intonation to convey meaning. A Second Language • Approach to bilingual education – Total immersion – Reverse immersion • ESL – Bilingual education – Bilingual-bicultural education Second-Language Learning • Crucial differences between success and failure rests with the attitudes of – Parents – Teachers – Community • Learn best early in life, under age 5. Peers are best teachers, supplemented by a positive attitude at home and in school Schooling and Cultural Values • Schoolchildren in the US today spend more time in school, playing sports, studying, doing art, reading and less time being outdoors, playing, watching TV.