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Physical and cognitive development
Physical Development
Growth and Body Changes
Motor Development
 More
Skill in controlling Body
 Physical Growth Slows Temporarily
Brain Development
 Dyslexia:
Disorder in which an otherwise
normally intelligent, healthy child or adult
has extreme difficulty learning to read
 Genius and Giftedness:
 Pull-out programs, in-class enrichment,
advancing a grade
Health and Fitness Issues
 Obesity:
BMI greater than the 85th
percentile for age and gender
 Eating Disorders
 Role of Play and Exercise
Cognitive Development
Cognitive Sophistication
 Piaget’s
Period of Concrete Operations
Integration of the powerful, abstract, internal
schemas such as identity, reversibility,
classification and serial ordering
 Conservation Tasks
Require recognition that the quantity of
something stays the same despite changes in
Horizontal Decalage
 Sequential
development, with each skill
dependent on the acquisition of earlier skills
 Post-Piagetian Criticism
 Cross-Cultural Evidence:
Cultural and social factors play a role in
children’s cognitive development
Information Processing
 Individual
 Children’s Perceptions of Others
Under 8: Children describe people in terms of
external attributes; global descriptive terms.
Over 8: More specific, precise. Inner qualities
are noticed.
Language Development
 Vocabulary
 Syntax
and Pragmatics: Grammar and
sentence structure
 Bilingual Education in the United States
 Educating Children Whose Reading and
Speaking Skills Are Below Standard
Limited English Proficiency
 Students
whose native language is not
English and who cannot participate
effectively in the regular school curriculum
because of difficulty speaking,
understanding, reading and writing English.
 3.2 million LEP students nationwide.
 Reading
and speaking skills are below
 English as a Second Language (ESL)
 Teaching English as Foreign Language
Bilingual Education
 Bilingualism:
Provides instruction in both
languages by teachers proficient in both.
 Total Immersion
Children placed in regular classrooms and
English is used for all instruction
Assessment of Intelligence
 Intelligence:
Ability of individuals to
understand and express complex ideas,
adapt effectively to their environment, learn
from experience, and solve problems.
Types of Intelligence Tests
 Verbal
intelligence, inductive reasoning,
spatial ability
 The EQ Factor: Emotional Intelligence
 Limitations of IQ Tests
Some abilities cannot be measured.
 Individual
Cognitive Styles:
Differences in how individuals organize and
process information.
The EQ Factor
 Emotional
 Mind-Blindness
 Temporary Insanity
 Self-Regulatory Behaviors
Learning Disabilities (LDs)
 Umbrella
concept to refer to children,
adolescents, and college students who
encounter difficulty with school-related
material despite the fact they appear to have
normal intelligence and lack demonstrable
physical, emotional, or social impairment.
 Collection
of vague and global symptoms.
 Causes are unknown
Individual Education Plans
 Legal
document that ensures that the child
with special learning needs will receive the
needed educational support services in the
least restrictive environment.
 The
integration of students with special
needs within the regular classroom
programs of the school, in some cases with
an additional aide in the classroom
What Do We Know About
Effective Schools
 Teachers
care about lesson plans
 High achievement is expected
 High proportion of time spent on instruction
and learning
Effective Schools
 Homework
is important
 Students encouraged to use library
 Schools foster respect for students and high
expectations for behavior
Moral Development
 The
process by which children adopt
principles that lead them to evaluate given
behaviors as right and others as wrong and
to govern their own actions in terms of
these principles.
Cognitive Learning Theory
 Bandura
 Moral development is a cumulative process
that builds on itself gradually and
continuously, without any abrupt changes.
Cognitive Developmental
 Piaget,
 Moral development takes place in stages,
with clear-cut changes between them.
 Piaget: two-stage theory of moral
Heteronomous morality
Autonomous morality
Lawrence Kohlberg
 Heinz’s
ethical dilemma: 3 levels of
1. Preconventional
2. Conventional
3. Postconventional
Carol Gilligan
 Men
and women have different conceptions
of morality
Men: justice
Women: care
Correlates of Moral Conduct
 Intelligence
 Age
 Sex (-)
 Group Norms (+)
 Motivational Factors (-)
Prosocial Behaviors
 Ways
of responding to other people through
sympathetic, cooperative, helpful, rescuing,
comforting and giving acts.
 Empathy: Feelings of emotional arousal that
lead an individual to take another
perspective and to experience an event as
the other person experiences it.