GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 1st year Physiotheraphy, 1st year Physical Education and Sport PhDr. Eva Tomešová, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org Credit + exam: written test, 10 questions - answer in a short paragraph, maximum gain is 100 points, 60 points to pass, 75 very good, 90 excellent. time: 60 minutes Enrolment: it is necessary to write me an email at least 1 day before the exam!!! Exam terms: 17.1.2008 15:00 22.1.2008 10:00 12.2.2008 15:00 there will be another terms, every month one, posted on my website We will meet in front of my office 10 minutes before the exam starts no.103, main building, first floor Questions: 1. Describe the basic procedures of an experiment. 2. What is behavioral genetics looking for? 3. Explain the terms “validity” and “reliability of the test.” 4. Why we use the double-blind technique in research? 5. What is the difference between sensation and perception? 6. Explain the Weber’s law. 7. Explain the direct and indirect (constructivist) perspective on perception. 8. How do we perceive depth? 9. What is a “perceptual set?” 10. What are the possible functions of REM sleep? 11. Describe two theories of sleep. 12. Describe the classical conditioning on an example. 13. Explain the Thorndike’s “law of effect.” 14. What is “secondary reinforcement?” 15. What is an observational learning and what do we acquire through it? 16. Describe the information-processing model of memory. 17. Explain the process of chunking, why we need it? 18. What kinds of information make the content of long term memory? 19. What is the difference between recognition and recall? 20. Explain the term “functional fixedness.” 21. What is “heuristic?” Describe one of the most common general heuristics. 22. Explain the difference between the fluid and crystallized intelligence (Cattell, 1971). 23. How did William Stern define the intelligence quotient? 24. What are the environmental influences causing the individual differences in intelligence? 25. What physiological changes occur during strong emotion? 26. What parts of the brain are involved in emotional reactions? 27. How can we induce emotions? 28. Explain the cognitive appraisal theory of emotion (Lazarus, 1990). 29. Define motivation. 30. Define instinct. 31. Explain the opponent process model (Solomon & Corbit 1974). 32. Define personality. 33. What was the content of unconscious in Freud’s theory of personality? 34. Explain one of the ego’s defense mechanisms. 35. What are the main criticisms of the psychoanalytic theories? 36. What are the assumptions of the trait theory? 37. What are the main criticisms of the trait theory? 38. What is self-schema according to social cognitive theories of personality? 39. Why people need the unconditional positive regard? 40. Describe the structure of the personality. 41. What is projective technique 42. Describe newborn’s perceptual capabilities. 43. Describe 4 Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. 44. How does the information-processing theory explain cognitive development? 45. Describe milestones in language development during first two years. 46. What do we know about intellectual abilities of elderly people? 47. What negative effects has an insecure attachment of the baby. 48. What is the criticism of Kohlberg’s cognitive theory of moral development? 49. Describe mid-life transition in terms of Erikson’s theory of personality development. 50. Describe the ABC model of attitudes. 51. How are the attitudes formed and maintained? 52. What characteristics should have an effective attitude communicator? 53. Why is two-sided argument more effective for changing attitudes? 54. Why is peripheral-route processing used in most advertisements? 55. Explain Festinger’s (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance. 56. Why are the “schemas” important in social cognition process? 57. What is the fundamental attribution error? 58. Explain self-serving bias. 59. What factors can affect conformity 60. Shortly define compliance and obedience. 61. What is social loafing? 62. What is socimetrics? 63. What factors can initially attract two people to each other (4)? 64. What three components is love made of (Sternberg, 1986)? 65. What is stereotype? 66. Shortly explain three approaches to aggressive behavior. 67. What is altruism?