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ECOL 223
Study guide for exam 3 Spring 2007
Understand what the following terms mean, be able to provide a definition and examples
Where appropriate:
Genetic Variance
Phenotypic Variance
Balancing Selection
Disruptive Selection
Directional Selection
Inner cell mass
Embryonic disc
Affective disorder
Blunted affect
Alex Jeffries
Kerry Mullis
Racial profiling with DNA
Hardy and Weinberg
P2 + 2pq + q2
What are the main features of a continuous trait as opposed to a discrete trait and what
are the genetic bases of the two? Give examples
What is a polygenic threshold trait? Give examples
What does it mean when the heritability of a trait is zero? Is 0.75?
How are Siamese twins formed?
Where does fertilization take place?
How long until implantation?
Where were the earliest hominid fossils found?
Name two Australopithecines
Name two species of Homo other than sapiens
What were some of the main differences between the Australopithecines and the Homo
that came later? What dates are associated with the major fossil hominids? Where were
the Australopithecines found?
How are human feet different from those of other hominids?
What assumptions must be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?
Name four processes that can change gene frequencies.
What are the primary differences between affective disorder and schizophrenia?
How can medications help us to understand the genetic bases of these disorders?
Give as many lines of evidence as you can to show that genes have an influence on
What are some of the potential problems with studies of heritability that can be avoided
with careful experimental design?
What is the reproductive biology behind the formation of fraternal or dizygotic twins?
What are the various ways in which monozygotic or identical twins can be formed?
Which types of cells can and cannot be used for DNA typing?
What are the uses of DNA profiling ?
What are the conditions under which genetic markers are most useful in determining a
suspect’s guilt ? Clue: the relative frequency of the genetic markers in the suspect is
important here.
Does the state of Arizona produce DNA data from suspects that can be uploaded into the
CODIS national DNA database?
Can DNA profiles be generated from the semen of a male who has undergone a
Name one of the three factors that make forensic DNA analysis so powerful.
What is the only physical trait that can be determined from a forensic DNA profile?
Describe the electropherogram pattern at the amelogenin locus for males, females or a
mixture of male and female material.
Give examples of traits under balancing, disruptive, or directional selection.
Family studies, twin studies and adoption studies are typically used to estimate the
heritability of a trait. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to each type of study.