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 A case is the term that defines how a
noun, adjective, or pronoun is used in a
 In English, case is defined mainly through
position in the sentence (syntax).
 In Latin the cases are identified by the
ending changes to the words themselves .
 The nominative case is the subject case.
 Subjects do the action of verbs.
 Ex.: Puella currit in agro.
 Subjects are also used with forms of the verb “to be,”
 Ex. Puella est benigna.
 Vocative is the case of direct address.
 Ex. Puella, salve.
 This case often looks just like the nominative.
 Accusative case is primarily the direct object.
 Ex. Puer non amat puellam.
 Accusative case also follows some prepositions.
 Ex. Puer ambulat ad puellam.
 This is the case of possession.
 In English, we use an “s” or the word “of ” to
show possession.
 Ex. Canis puellae in silva ambulat.
 Dative case can show possession.
 Dative case also functions as the case of
indirect object.
 Ex. Puer donum donat puellae.
 There are about twenty uses of ablative in Latin.
 Ablative is primarily a case of prepositions.
 Ex. Puer in silva ambulat cum puella.
 Although the puella above looks the same as that in
the nominative and vocative cases, it is different in
pronunciation: the “a” in puella, in the ablative, is
pronounced as a long “a”.
 In Latin, the prepositions are not always stated;
they are often implied by the use of ablative
 Puella ad scholam ducta, illa verba discebat.
 A knowledge of the meanings and uses of cases is
essential to progressing in Latin.
 There are six cases, each of which uses a different
ending to suggest a different use in the sentence.
 Each word will have, normally, a total of twelve
different endings (six cases plus plural and singular.)
 As you learn your cases, the ending changes on nouns
will start to make sense and help you in translating .