Download Latin I Review - Dover High School

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Spanish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Georgian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Turkish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Serbo-Croatian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Yiddish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Italian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Modern Hebrew grammar wikipedia, lookup

Kannada grammar wikipedia, lookup

Macedonian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Udmurt grammar wikipedia, lookup

Esperanto grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old English grammar wikipedia, lookup

Swedish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ukrainian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Inflection wikipedia, lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia, lookup

Sanskrit grammar wikipedia, lookup

Scottish Gaelic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia, lookup

French grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ojibwe grammar wikipedia, lookup

Zulu grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old Irish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Icelandic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Japanese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Modern Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Arabic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Romanian nouns wikipedia, lookup

Latvian declension wikipedia, lookup

Russian declension wikipedia, lookup

Archaic Dutch declension wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Latin I Review
Cambridge Unit I
Fall 2012
Magistra Chadwell
Basic Parts of Speech
• Noun***
▫ A person, place or thing (puella, canis, villa)
• Pronoun***
▫ Used in place of a noun (Remember that Latin
doesn’t necessarily use pronouns)
• Adjective***
▫ A word used to describe a noun
▫ Comparatives and Superlatives (faster, fastest)
• Verb***
▫ Words used to express action or state of being
Basic Parts of Speech
• Adverb***
▫ Describes a verb (lentē--slowly)
• Preposition
▫ Introduces a phrase which gives more information
about the sentence (in tablinō—in the study)
• Conjunction
▫ Connecting words (et—and)
• Interjection
▫ Used to express emotion (eheu!—alas!)
• ****indicates words that are inflected
Nouns
• Nouns are separated into declensions.
• A declension is a group of nouns that share the
same endings.
• Nouns have case, number and gender
▫ Case indicates the nouns function.
▫ Number refers to singular or plural.
▫ Gender often has no bearing on the noun.
• The dictionary entry of a noun gives you the
nominative and genitive forms of the word, the
gender and the meaning. (beginning w/ Unit 2)
Nouns (con’t)
• You haven’t learned genitive case yet, but that is the
word you use to identify the declension and get the stem.
Singular
1st
2nd
3rd
Nominative
--a
--us, -r
No set ending
Dative
--ae
--o
--i
Accusative
--am
--um
--em
Plural
1st
2nd
3rd
Nominative
--ae
--I
--es
Dative
--is
--is
--ibus
Accusative
--as
--os
--es
Nouns (con’t)
• Nominative Case—used for the subject and
predicate
▫ Mater est in tablino.
▫ Coquus est iratus.
• Dative Case—used for the indirect object
(to/for) and with intransitive verbs
▫ Mater puellae librum dat.
▫ Mihi placet. (mihi licet….?)
• Accusative—used for the direct object (some
prepositions)
▫ Mater puellae librum dat.
Verbs
• Verbs are broken down into conjugations based
on their infinitive
• Verbs have 5 characteristics
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫
Person (perspective of the subject)
Number (singular or plural)
Tense (time frame of the action)
Voice (later this year)
Mood (later this year)
• You’ve learned 3 of the 6 tenses (present,
imperfect and perfect)
Verbs (con’t)
• Present tense is used for an action happening
now.
▫ Can be translated 3 different ways.
 Laborat works, is working, does work
• Imperfect tense is used for a repeated or
incomplete past action
▫ Can be translated several ways and recognized by
–ba.
▫ Laborabat was working, used to work, began to
work
Verbs (con’t)
• Perfect tense is used for a single, completed past
action.
▫ Has its own set of endings
▫ Uses a different stem from present and imperfect
(-v, -u, -x, -s, vowel change, long mark, extra
syllable, sometimes no change)
▫ Can be translate three different ways
▫ Laboravit worked, did work, has worked
• You did learn an important irregular verb (sum)
Miscellaneous Information
• Latin doesn’t use articles (a/an, the)
• Pronouns—ego, tu, nos, and vos
I
You (s)
Nom
ego
tū
Dat
mihi
tibi
Acc
mē
tē
We
You (P)
Nom
Nōs
Vōs
Dat
Nōbīs
Vōbīs
Acc
nōs
vōs
Miscellaneous Information
• Question words
▫ -ne (added to first word)
▫ num (expects a no answer)
▫ quid, quis, cur, ubi
• Comparative and Superlative adjectives
▫ Laetus, laetior, laetissium happy, happier,
happiest
▫ Pulcher, pulchrior, pulcherrimuspretty, prettier,
very pretty