Download Latin I Grammar Notes 11-29-2016 NOUNS • We`ve already seen

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Transcript
Latin I
Grammar Notes
11-29-2016
NOUNS
 We’ve already seen that subjects are in nominative case and direct objects are in
accusative case.
 Last week we learned the endings for accusative plural nouns.
o 1st declension: -ās
o 2nd declension: -ōs
o 3rd declension – ēs
 This week we’re working on the ablative case.
o 1st declension: -ā, -īs
o 2nd declension: -ō, -īs
o 3rd declension: -e, -ibus
 As of today, we know four of the ten forms of a given noun (nominative S and P;
accusative S & P).
 Generating these forms on a t-chart is called declining a noun.
VERBS
 The second principal part of the verb is the infinitive.
 Infinitives in English are the preposition to and the verb itself (i.e., to run, to swim, to
ride)
 The infinitive tells you which conjugation a verb belongs to:
o 1st = -āre
o 2nd = ēre
o 3rd = -ere (the 1st principal part will end in –ō)
o 3rd-io = -ere (the 1st principal part will end in –iō)
o 4th = -īre
 Very often the infinitive is used with verbs like potest (is able), vult (wants), parat
(prepares), timet (is afraid), etc. This construction is called a complementary infinitive
because it completes the ide started by the main verb.
o Currere vult.
He wants to run.
o Cadere timent.
They are afraid to fall.
Prepositions
 Prepositions (both in English and Latin) take an object, i.e., a noun that follows the
prepositions.
o over the river
o through the woods
o to grandmother’s house
 In Latin these objects are either accusative or ablative case.