Middles in German - EDOC HU - Humboldt
... verb’s first argument its second argument is linked to the subject position (i.e. to a NP assigned nominative case) in middle constructions. This second argument is normally linked to
a NP assigned accusative case (i.e. the direct object) in the active counterpart (3).3 On the
other hand, middle con ...
Unambiguous Argument Identification and the Distribution of Weak
... and collegues in Salzburg who have all helped shape my ideas in various ways.
I would particularly like to thank Thomas Krisch, Oswald Panagl and Ioannis
Fykias for helpful suggestions (and Thomas Krisch and Oswald Panagl also for
having ‘hosted’ me in many of their graduate seminars).
I owe a lot t ...
... (Voice), and z with respect to which the representation is abstracted over by means of a λabstract.12 The DP that is applied to nach has to provide a discourse referent that is of the
same type as z which results in the nach-PP by means of function application. There are also
two events e and e0 (e0 ...
Free from “www.pawankumar.org”. © All copyrights are
... I wrote the pronunciations in Hindi because psychologically many students still
have the fear of learning „Another Foreign Language‟, when they are not perfect enough
in English. Hindi pronunciations help them overcome this fear and give them „The
Vision‟ which they are familiar with.
I gave an equi ...
A Study of Word Order Variation in German, with Special Reference
... deal with word order variation in Machine Translation. It specially refers to modifier
placement, as modifiers are generally neglected in linguistic (word order) description.
The order of phrases in free word order languages is not entirely free, as some variations
can be ungrammatical, and further ...
On the syntax of locative and directional adpositional phrases
... about the placement of P itself vis-à-vis its internal argument. The fact that locative PPs are systematically
prepositional except in R–word cases is taken care of by the assumption that P must raise to Place (thereby
ending up to the left of non-R–pronouns and DPs, but still remaining to the right ...
Clausal architecture and subject positions
... 2003 for their feedback.
I’m deeply indebted to Darcy Bruce Berry, Tim Cox, Jeroen van Craenenbroeck,
Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson, Hans Kamp, Arne Martinus Lindstad, Anna Mcnay and her
friends, Jan-Wouter Zwart and my New Zealand friends and family. Without their help and
patience this study would ...
Case Selection for the Direct Object in Russian Negative Clauses. Part
... Auvinen, Eeva-Liisa Korte, and Liisa Knuutila, in connection with the
preparation of their Master's theses. Without their contribution, the
computer corpus necessary for the present study could never have been
produced. Liisa Vilkki helped with the laborious task of checking and
correcting the coded ...
A Tree-to-Tree Model for Statistical Machine Translation Brooke
... translation approach in a German-to-English task shows significant improvements in the
grammaticality of translations. This thesis also presents a statistical parser for Spanish
that could be used as part of a Spanish/English translation system.
Thesis Supervisor: Michael J. Collins
Title: Associate ...
Morphosyntactic Convergence and Integration in Finland
... This research has developed slowly. In the beginning, the aim was to consider
codeswitching in the data on the basis of ethnomethodological conversation
analysis and theories on codeswitching. Fascinating papers by Peter Auer
inspired me to research in this direction. For me, that part of the proces ...
... nāuis ā Tadiō capta est. (“The ship was captured by Tadius.”)
Occasionally this construction is employed with nouns that designate a thing rather than a person: in
such a case, the thing so indicated is personified. Conversely, a human agent can be indicated by the
ablative without ā / ab, but in su ...
The Verbal Complex in Continental West Germanic
... wh-questions. A similar rule puts the tense bearing element in first position for some
other types of main clauses. Thus, following usual practice we will direct our attention
primarily at embedded clauses in as much as we presume these clauses to reveal
the underlying word order more directly than ...
Clause Structure and X
... We propose that in (6) the inflected verb has undergone structure-preserving topicalization (i.e. topicalization of an XΕ
category to another head position YΕ). This operation probably takes place for reasons connected to information
structure, since the examples in question seem to be presentationa ...
Aleš Svoboda: Functional perspective of the noun phrase
... a closer look at one aspect of the units of a thematic nature. In verbal distributional fields, themes proper are regularly represented by (unstressed) personal
pronouns and pronominal adverbs. Personal pronouns expressing subject in
English (like personal endings of verbs in Czech) anchor the notio ...
Overview on Annotation of Ellipses
... - Although Helen is the oldest girl in the class, Julie is the tallest [girl]
In German, the ellipsis remnant has to show strong morphological agreement in order to
license the elided noun. In English, nominal ellipses after adjectives are less frequent than in
German and mainly restricted to ellips ...
... examples in (1-3), is that all three languages have fairly similar intonational and
syntactic properties. When the subject is in focus, however, these languages differ
in whether the intonational pattern is changed, as in English, whether canonical
constituent order is sacrificed, as in Spanish, or ...
diachronic syntax in slavonic languages
... Sorbian, giving an adequate impression of the Slavonic language family as a whole. It
contains individual studies on Russian, Czech, Ruthenian, Lower Sorbian, and Polish, and
also includes general comparative resp. typological papers. The book’s seventeen
contributions reflect the breadth and divers ...
German - Wikimedia Commons
... A Textbook on Five Levels
The question arose early in the development of this textbook as to precisely who would be
the target audience. Although intended to be a "beginning" textbook on German, many
felt that the early lessons were too diﬃcult for younger students with very limited or no
Literal and Nonliteral Meaning in Placename Idioms Key words
... The implicature provides a one-to-one correspondence between stupid people and people
coming from Dummsdorf. This is the basis for using the expression “be from Stupidville” as
synonymous with “be stupid”.
We note that other idiomatic interpretations for placename idioms are also possible
and attest ...
Left/right asymmetries and the grammar of pre- vs. post
... adjoined or -positioned constituents in syntax is misleading from the point of view of Interactional Linguistics and needs to be replaced by a positionally sensitive grammatical analysis, in
which pre- and post-positioning is seen in the context of the sequential unfolding of conversation in time. W ...
German/Print version - Wikibooks, collection of open
... In learning to read or speak any language with which you have minimal acquaintance (that is, are not a native speaker
of), the two aspects to be mastered are vocabulary and grammar. Acquiring vocabulary is a "simple" matter of
memorization. For the language(s) we learn as children, this process is s ...
Icelandic non-nominative subjects Facts and implications
... (for a more thorough description, see Sigurðsson 1989, Jónsson 1997-1998).
It is well-known that semantics affect case selection of both subjects and objects
in Icelandic (for some discussion, see Einarsson 1949, Kress 1982, Barðdal 1993,
2001, Jónsson 1997-1998, 2000, 2001, Maling 1998, Svenonius 2 ...
German grammar is the grammar of the German language. Although some features of German grammar, such as the formation of some of the verb forms, resemble those of English, German grammar differs from that of English in that it has, among other things, cases and gender in nouns and a strict verb-second word order in main clauses.German has retained many of the grammatical distinctions that other Germanic languages have lost in whole or in part. There are three genders and four cases, and verbs are conjugated for person and number. Accordingly, German has more inflections than English, and uses more suffixes. For example, in comparison to the -s added to third-person singular present-tense verbs in English, most German verbs employ four different suffixes for the conjugation of present-tense verbs, namely -e for the first-person singular, -st for the second-person singular, -t for the third-person singular and for the second-person plural, and -en for the first- and third-person plural.Owing to the gender and case distinctions, the articles have more possible forms. In addition, some prepositions combine with some of the articles.Numerals are similar to other Germanic languages. Unlike English and Swedish, units are placed before tens as in Danish, Dutch, and Norwegian.