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Transcript
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© All copyrights are reserved with Pawan Kumar.
THE UNIVERSAL COURSE
IN
GERMAN
WITH COLLOQUIAL DIALOGUES AND
PRONUNCIATIONS IN HINDI
AUTHOR
PAWAN KUMAR
M.A.English,Kanpur University Topper-1995
Intensive German-I.I.T.Kanpur
Intensive French-I.I.T.Kanpur
Certificat De Français- Alliance Française De Delhi
Assistant Professor-French
Amity University, Lucknow, India
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I humbly bow down to
My mother
Smt.Asha Devi Gupta
And my father
Dr.Dashrath Prasad Gupta
For their everlasting
Blessings.
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My words
GERMAN IN GERMAN IS CALLED DEUTSCH(MkW;p)
Before I say my words about the book, I would firstly answer the question‘Why should we study German?’
 German is one of the important international languages of the modern globalised
world, which is spoken in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Liechtenstein as a
national language.
 It is one of the languages of the multinational companies and organizations.
 The translators and interpreters of German language are always in great demand.
 The literature of German language is very rich and many Nobel Prizes have been
given to this language.
 German language is known as the language of philosophy and psychology. It has
given birth to many great philosophers and psychologists of the world. Therefore
reading German is always a rich and fulfilling experience to an intellectual.
 Many scientific and technical writings are originally in German, therefore
knowing this language is always helpful for the people of this field.
 The German language is among the leading international languages of the world.
After English and French, German takes the third place in the international
community.

Besides being the language of Germany with an estimated speakers of 80
millions, it is spoken in Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. There are German
speaking communities in North and South America, particularly in Brazil.

Hitlerism played havoc with this precious heritage and culture, yet the
interest of the world in German language and literature did not cease to grow.

As the linguists of the world consider Sanskrit to be the mother of all the
languages of the world, German too has the affinity with Sanskrit at many levels.
As in Sanskrit, in a Shloka, a word can be very long with as many as 30 to 40
letters, so with German too, many a words can be attached and can form one
word.

Coming to the medieval history the so-called Teutonic or Germanic
Language subfamily comprises a number of languages like English, Dutch,
German and extinct Gothic. And the other side Latin subfamily was giving birth
to French, Italian, Spanish and Portugese. The development of English and
German had a common history.

Those who created the history of modern Germany and German language
have been Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche (all
philosophers), Sigmund Freud (psychologist), Albert Einstein (scientist),
Hahnemann (founder of homœopathy), Karl Marx (political thinker),Max
Mullar(linguist and philosopher) and off course Adolf Hitler (autocrat). We
cannot forget their impact on the world history too.
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Now about the bookIn my childhood, when my father Dr.Dashrath Prasad Gupta taught me the
numbers in German- one,two,three,four ….Eins, zwei, drei, vier….etc.,it immediately
caught my attention and interest. Later I studied German and French in I.I.T.Kanpur. I
found comparatively German to be more straight-forward than French, which is more
poetic. German sounds are clear and script has no silent letters. And so are the German
people, straight-forward and no diplomacy.
I wrote this book to help the students of Amity university and other institutions,
where German is a necessary part of their curriculum, because I found many students not
getting anything in German with the books in German medium.
I wrote the pronunciations in Hindi because psychologically many students still
have the fear of learning „Another Foreign Language‟, when they are not perfect enough
in English. Hindi pronunciations help them overcome this fear and give them „The
Vision‟ which they are familiar with.
I gave an equivalence of the German tenses with the English tenses, so that a new
German learner coming from English grammar background can adjust with German tense
system.
Many students I interacted, were quite confused with no clarity on the „German
Case System‟ especially with „accusative and dative‟ because they have been familiar
neither with these words and nor with their grammatical structures while studying
English grammar in their school days. I chose to write the case system with a clear
insight for a new learner of German. I gave an English parallel to the cases in German. Or
one can say it as looking at the German Language with the English spectacles. Now only
the German scholars will decide as to how far I have been successful in giving this
insight
I am thankful to all my students who inspired me to write this book, to my brother
Shesh Kumar Gupta for his continuous friendly support for my creativity. And last but
not the least I am thankful to my wife Richa who has always been my greatest support.
Suggestions are always welcome [email protected]
or
[email protected]
or
Mo.-09889191008
Deewali,
Pawan Kumar
2008
Nishaneed,
556-B,Eldeco,Udyan-II,Anubhav
Opp.D.P.S,RaxaKhand,Lucknow-25
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
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26
27
28
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© All copyrights are reserved with Pawan Kumar.
INDEX
TITLE
THE GREETINGS
THE ALPHABET
HOW ARE YOU?
THE INTRODUCTION
UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE LANGUAGE
THE EXPRESSIONS
THE CARDINAL NUMBERS
THE ORDINAL NUMBERS
THE DAYS OF THE WEEK
THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR
THE TIME
ADVERBS OF TIME
DIALOGUES BASED ON NUMBERS
THE WEATHER
THE COMMON QUESTIONS
THE COMMON INTERROGATIONS
THE SEASONS AND THE HOLIDAYS
THE GENDER
THE ARTICLES
THE NOUN
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
THE FAMILY AND THE RELATIONS
THE FOOD AND THE DRINKS
THE COLOURS
THE PARTS OF BODY
THE CLOTHES
THE ANIMALS
THE HOUSE
FURNITURE AND HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES
THE MODES OF TRANSPORT
THE SHOPS
THE PRONOUN
THE TENSES
THE VERBS
PRÄSENS
THE AUXILIARY VERBS
THE NEGATIVE
PAGE
1
2
6
7
15
18
24
27
30
31
32
34
37
39
40
41
43
44
45
47
51
54
57
61
63
65
68
71
72
74
75
77
79
80
83
84
87
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38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
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THE INTERROGATIVE
WEAK OR REGULAR VERBS
STRONG OR IRREGULAR VERBS
FEW EXCEPTIONAL STRONG VERBS
THE MODAL VERBS
THE IMPERATIVES
THE SEPARABLE VERBS
PERFEKT
PRÄTARITUM
PLUPERFEKT
FUTUR
FUTUR PERFEKT
THE CASES-AN INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS THE CASE-AN INSIGHT
„AKKUSATIV‟-IN DETAIL
„DATIV‟-IN DETAIL
„DATIV‟ VERBS
THE REFLEXIVE VERBS
„GENITIV‟ IN DETAIL
ARTICLES IN DIFFERENT CASES
PRONOUNS IN DIFFERENT CASES
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
THE PREPOSITIONS
THE ADJECTIVES
THE CONJUNCTIONS
THE PASSIVE VOICE
A DIALOGUE IN A RESTAURANT
A DIALOGUE IN A HOTEL
A DIALOGUE ON SHOPPING
ASKING FOR DIRECTION
A VISIT TO A DOCTOR
A TELEPHONE CONVERSATION
LETTER WRITING
APPENDIX A- PRACTICE EXERCISE
APPENDIX B-ALL TENSES AND SENTENCES AT A GLANCE
APPENDIX C- PRACTICE LESSON-‘MEIN LAND INDIEN’
APPENDIX D ‘REFERAT’-THE PRESENTATION OF GERMANY
89
90
102
112
114
122
128
135
147
155
166
173
174
177
186
189
193
196
204
211
219
224
227
244
252
257
264
268
270
272
274
276
282
284
293
295
296
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CHAPTER 1
THE GREETINGS
Guten Morgen
xqVsu eksxsZu
GoodMorning
Guten Tag
xqVsu Vkx
Guten Abend
xqVsu vkcsUM
GoodAfter
Noon/Hello
GoodEvening
Gute Nacht
xwVs uk[V
Good Night
Auf
Wiedersehen
Hallo
Tschüß
Herr
vkmQohMjt+su Bye/See you
gkyks
P;wl
gsj
Hi
Bye
Mr.
Mein Herr
Frau
ekbu gsj
Ýkvks
Sir
Mrs./Madam
Madame
ekMke
Madam
Fräulein
ÝkW;ykbu
Miss
Meine Damen
und Herren
ekbus Mkesu
mUM gsjsu
Ladies and
Gentlemen
1
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CHAPTER 2
THE ALPHABET
A
vk
B
cs
C
ls
D
Ms
E
,
F
,Q
G
xs
H
gk
I
bZ
J
;ksV
K
dk
L
,y
M
,e
N
,u
O
vks
P
is
Q
dw
R
,j
S
,l
T
Vs
U
m
V W
Q+kvks os
Y
bfIlyksu
Z
RlsV
2
X
bZDl
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Pawan Kumar.
The rules of pronunciations
In comparison to English, German
pronunciation is simple and consistent. In
English, the same letter may be
pronounced in various ways; E.g. the letter
‗a‘ is pronounced differently in the words
far, gate, hall, at, woman.
But in German ‗a‘ will be vk only.
In most cases German words are
pronounced as spelt. There are no silent
letters. Every letter and every combination
of letters is pronounced. The vowels are
pure and they are clearly pronounced.
3
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The Letter & The Group Of Letters
And How They Are Pronounced-
a
e
i
o
u
au
äu
eu
ei
ie
ch(after a,o,u,au)
ch(after e,i,ö,ü,eu)
sch
th
dt
ß(ss)
qu
chs
sp
st(in the beginning of the word)
4
vk
,
b
vks
m
vkm
vkW;
vkW;
vkbZ
bZ
‚k ¼’ktending towards[k½
‘k
‘k
V
V
l
Do
Dl
‘i
‘V
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st(in the middle of the word) LV
,¼deep½
ä
;ks
ö
bZ(with rounded lips)
ü
Q+
v
Rl
c(before e, i, y)
Rl
z
;
J
g(after i, at the end of the word) ‘k
V
d(at the end of the word)
t+
s(between two vowels)
fl;ksa
tion
fl;ksa
sion
N.B.Any word expressing the noun will always begin with
the capital letter while writing.
5
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CHAPTER 3
HOW ARE YOU?
Formal
Wie geht es Ihnen?
oh xsV ,l bZusu\
How are you? / How do you do?
Danke, es geht mir gut. Und Ihnen?
MkUds ] ,l xsV ehj xwV- mUM bZusu\
Thank you, I am fine. And you?
Danke, es geht.
MkUds] ,l xsVThank you, fine.
Informal
Wie geht‘s?
oh xsV~l\
How are you doing?
Danke, (recht) gut.
MkUds ] ¼js‛V½ xwVThank you,(just)fine.
Other options of the answerAusgezeichnet vkmlxsRlkb’kusV excellent,
Wunderbar oqUMjckj great
Prima izhek Terrific (informal)
6
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CHAPTER 4
THE INTRODUCTION
Introducing OthersDarf ich Sie Herr Pawan Kumar
vorstellen?
MkQZ b‛k t+h gsj
iou
dqekj
QksjLVsysu\
May I introduce you to Mr.Pawan
Kumar?
Und er ist Herr ……
mUM ,j bLV gsj-------------And he is Mr………..
Und sie ist Frau/Fräulein…….
mUM t+h bLV Ý[email protected]ÝkW;ykbu---------And she is Mrs./Ms…………
Es freut mich, Sie zu sehen!
,l ÝkssbV fe‛k
t+h Rlw t+sgsu
Pleased to see you!
Other optionsDas ist mein Mann Herr…/meine Frau…
nkl bLV ekbu eku [email protected] ekbus Qzkvks----------------This is my husband Mr…/my wife …….
7
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This is [Das ist nkl bLV]mein Vater
ekbu Q+kVj my father
meine Mutter
ekbus ewVj my mother
mein Sohn
ekbu t+ksu my son
meine Tochter ekbus rks[rj my daughter
mein Freund ekbu ÝkWbUMmy [intimate boy]friend
meineFreundinekbusÝkWbfUMumy[intimate girl] friend
mein Bekannter ekbu csdkUVjmy boy friend
meine Bekannte ekbus csdkUVs my girl friend
mein Verlobter ekbu QsjyksCVjmy fiancé
meine Verlobte ekbus QsjyksCVs my fiancée
WelcomingHerzlich wilkommen!
gsRlZfy‛k
foYdksesu Heartily welcome!
Asking and Telling
the Names colloquiallyWie heißen Sie?
oh
gkblsu t+h\
How do you call yourself?
Ich heiße Pawan Kumar.
b‛k gkbls iou dqekjI call myself Pawan Kumar.
8
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Asking the name formallyWie ist Ihr Name? Bitte!
oh bLV bvj uke \ fcVs!
What is your name? Please!
Mein Name ist Pawan Kumar.
Ekkbu uke
bLV iou
dqekjMy name is Pawan Kumar.
Wie ist Ihr Vorname?
oh bLV bvj Qksjuke \
What is your first name?
Mein Vorname ist Pawan .
Ekkbu Qksjuke
bLV iou My name is Pawan .
Wie ist Ihr Familienname?
oh bLV bvj Qkehfy;suuke\
What is your surname?
Mein Familienname ist Gupta.
Ekkbu Q+kehfy;suuke
bLV xqIrMy surname is Gupta.
9
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Introducing YourselfIch heiße Pawan Kumar.Und Sie?
b‛k gkbls iou dqekjmUM t+h\
I call myself Pawan Kumar.And you?
Ich heiße…..
b‛k gkbls----------I call myself…..
The NationalityWie ist Ihr Nationalität?
oh bLV bvj ukL;wukyhVssV\
What is your nationality?
Ich bin Inder/ Inderin*.
b‛k fcu [email protected]
I am Indian.
*[Inder is masc.&Inderin is fem.]
Other NationalitiesDeutscher / DeutscheMkW;ps @ MkW;Pks German
Amerikaner/Amerikanerin
[email protected]
American
Japaner/Japanerin;[email protected];kikufju Japanese
Engländer/Engländerin,[email protected]&fju English
Franzose/FranzösinÝk¡[email protected]Ýk¡UT;ksflu French
Russe/Russin :[email protected]:flu
Russian
Chinese/Chinesin f‛[email protected]‛kusft+u
Chinese
10
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The ProfessionWas sind Sie von Beruf?
Okkl ft+UM t+h Q+kWu cs:Q+\
What are you by profession?
Ich bin Student/Studentin.
b‛k fcu ‘VwMsUV¼iq-½@‘VwMsfUVu¼L=h-½I am student.
Other ProfessionsLehererysgsjj/LehererinysgsjfjuTeacher
Ingenieur,atsfu;jEngineer
ArztvkjRLr/Ärztin,jfRLruDoctor
Sekretär/Sekretärin t+sØ[email protected]&fjuSecretary
Bibliothekar/Bibliothekarin
fcfCy;ksFksd[email protected]&fju librarian
Rechtsanwaltjs‛V~tk+ uokYV the advocate
Journalist twUkkZyhLVJournalist
11
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WhereWo wohnen Sie?
Okks
oksgusu t+h
Where do you live?
Ich wohne in Lucknow,Indien.
b‛k oksgus bu y[kuÅ ]bfUM;uI live in Lucknow.
WherefromWoher kommen Sie?
Okksgsj
dksesu t+h
Where do you come from?
Ich komme aus Kanpur,Indien.
b‛k oksgus bu dkuiqj]bfUM;uI come from Kanpur,India.
WheretoWohin gehen Sie?
Okksfgu
xsgsu t+h
Where are you going to?
Ich gehe nach Berlin,Deutschland.
b‛k xsgs uk[k cs;jfyu]MkW;pykUMI am going to Berlin,Germany.
12
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StudyWas studieren Sie?
Okkl ‘VwfM;sjsu
t+h\
What do you study?
Ich studiere Deutsch.
b‛k ‘VwfM;sjs MkW;pI study German.
WorkWo arbeiten Sie?
oks vkjckbVsu t+h\
Where do you work?
Ich arbeite in Lucknow.
b‛k vkjckbVs bu y[kuÅI work in Lucknow.
13
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Married?Sind Sie Verheiratet?
ft+UM t+h Q+sjkbZjkVsV\
Are you married?
Ja, ich bin Verheiratet.
;k] b‛k fcu Q+sjkbjkVsVYes, I am married.
Nein, ich bin junggeselle / junggesellin.
Ukkbu] b‛k fcu
;qUxslsy @ ;qUxslsfyu
No, I am bachelor / spinster.
The ChildrenHaben Sie die Kinder?
gkcsu
t+h Mh fdUMj\
Do you have the children?
Nein , ich habe kein Kind.
Ukkbu] b‛k gkcs dkbu fdUMNo , I don‘t have child.
Ja, ich habe ein Kind/ zwei Kinder.
;k] b‛k gkcs vkbu [email protected] fdUMjYes , I have one child/ two children.
14
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CHAPTER 5
UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE
LANGUAGE
Spechen Sie Deutsch?
‘izs‛ksu
t+h MkW;p\
Do you speak German?
Ja, Ich spreche ein wenig Deutsch.
;k] b‛k ‘izs‛ks
vkbu osfu’k MkW;pYes, I speak a little German.
Spechen Sie Englisch?
‘izs‛ksu
t+h ,afXy’k\
Do you speak English?
Ja, Ich spreche Gut Englisch.
;k] b‛k ‘izs‛ks
xwV ,afXy’kYes, I speak good English.
Spechen Sie Französisch?
‘izs‛ksu
t+h Ý+k¡RL;ksft+’k\
Do you speak French?
Nein, Ich spreche kein Französisch.
ukbu] b‛k ‘izs‛ks
dkbu Ý+k¡RL;ksft+’kNo, I don‘t speak French.
15
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Verstehen Sie mich?
Q+sj’Vsgsu t+h fe’k\
Do you understand me
Ja,Ich verstehe./ Nein,Ich verstehe nichts.
;k] b‛k Q+sj’[email protected] Ukkbu] b‛k Q+sj’Vsgs uh‛VYes, I understand.No, I don‘t understand.
Sprechen Sie bitte etwas langsamer.
‘izs‛ksu
t+h fcVs ,V~okl ykaxt+kejPlease speak a little slower.
Wie heißt das auf Deutsch?
oh gkbLV Mkl vkml MkW;p\
How do you say that in German?
Wie bitte?
Okh fcVs\
I beg your pardon.
16
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Buchstabieren Sie Das bitte.
cw’Vkfc;sjsu
t+h Mkl fcVsWould you spell that, please.
Schreiben Sie das bitte.
Jkbcsu
t+h Mkl fcVsWould you write that, please.
Übersetsen Sie das bitte.
bZcjt+sV~lsu t+h Mkl fcVsWould you translate that, please.
Aussprechen Sie das bitte.
vkml’izs‛ksu
t+h Mkl fcVsWould you pronounce that, please.
17
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CHAPTER 6
THE EXPRESSIONS
The Expressions of ThanksDanke
MkUds
Danke schön
MkUds ‘;ksu
Danke sehr
MkUds t+sj
Vielen Dank
Q+hysu MkUd
Danke, gleichfalls
MkUds] Xykb’kQ+kYl
Nein, Danke
Ukkbu] MkUds
Tausend Dank
Vkmt+sUM MkUd
Bitte sehr
fcVs t+sj
Keine Ursache
dkbus Åt+kZ‛ks
Thank you
Thank you
very much
Thank you
very much
Thanks a lot
Thank you too
No thanks
Thanks a million
you‘re welcome
Don‘t mention it
18
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Bye ByeAus Wiedersehen
vkmQ+ ohMjt+su
Good-Bye/See you
[This farewell is always acceptable
by all German speakers.]
Tschüß P;wl
Bye
[This farewell is mostly spoken
by Northern German speakers.]
Bis später fcl ‘isVj
see you later
Bis Bald fcl ckYM
see you soon
Gute Nacht xwVs uk[V
Good Night
Bis Morgen fcl eksxsZu See you tomorrow
Alles Gute vkysl xwVs All the Best
Gute Reise xwVs jkbt+s
Have a nice journey
Auf Wiederhören
vkmQ+ ohMj áksjsu
Bye [on Phone]
19
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Yes Ja;k
Yes
Gut xwV
Good/Fine
Richtig fjf‛V’k
Right
Primaizhek
Terrific
Gewißxsfol
Certainly
Selbstverständlich
t+sYILV Q+sj’VsUMfy‛k off course
Mit Vergnügen
feV Q+sjXU;wxsu
With Pleasure
Vielleicht
fQ+ykb‛V
Perhaps
Wahrscheinlich
Okkj’kkbufy‛k
Probably
20
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NoNein ukbu
No
NiemalsuhekYl
Never
Nichtsuh‛V~l
nothing
Auf keinen Fall Certainlty not/
vkmQ dkbusu Q+ky No way
Lieber nicht
yhcj uh‛V
I‘d rather not
Kommt gar nicht in Frage!
dksEV
xkj uh‛V bu Ý+kxs
Out of question
Ich will nicht
b’k foy uh‛V I don‘t want to
Ich kann nicht
b‛k dku uh‛V I can‘t
21
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PardonEntschuldigung
,UV’kwyfMxwUx
Excuse me/sorry
Entschuldigen Sie bitte!
,UV’kwyfMxsu t+h fcVs
Please excuse me
Verzeihung
Qs+jRlkbmUx
I beg your pardon
Es tut mir [sehr] leid
,l VwV fevj ¼t+sj½ ykbZM I am [very] sorry
Regrets[Wie] Schade!
¼oh½ ‘kkMs
What a pity!/too bad
Es ist sehr schade!
,l bLV t+sj ‘kkMs
What a shame!
Ich bedauere das sehr.
b’k csMkmvjs Mkl t+sj I am so very sorry
about that.
Es ist leider unmöglich!
,l bLV ykbMj muE;ksfXy‛kIt is unfortunately
impossible.
22
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CongratulationsIch gratuliere Ihnen
b‛k xzkV~;wfy;sjs bZusuCongratulations
Ich beglückwünsche Sie
b‛k csXY;wdO;wU’ks t+hCongratulations
Zum Geburstag
Rlqe xscwlZVkXkOn your birthday
Zum Vermählung
Rlqe Q+sesZywUx On your marriage
I wish you a…
Ich Wünsche Ihnen ein……
b‛k O;wU’ks busu vkbu ….. I wish you a……
Herzlichen Glückwünsch
gsRlZyh‛ksu XY;wdO;wU’k Best wishes
Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburstag
gsRlZyh‛ksu XY;wdO;wU’k Rlqe xscwlZVkd Happy
Birthday
Frohe Weihnachten /(Frohes Fest)
Ýksgs okbuk[Vsu @¼Ý+ksgsl Q+sLV½Merry Christmas
Glückliches neues Jahr/
XY;wdyh‛ksl
U;q,l ;[email protected]
(Prosit Neujahr)
¼izksft+V UkkW; ;kj½ Happy New Year
23
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CHAPTER 7
THE
CARDINAL
NUMBERS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
uwy
vkbUl
RlokbZ
nzkbZ
fQ+;j
¶+;wUQ+
t+sDl
t+hcsu
vk[r
ukW;u
Rlsu
,YQ+
RLoksYQ+
nzkbZRlsu
fQ+;jRlsu
¶+;wUQ+Rlsu
t+sDlRlsu
t+hcRlsu
vk[rRlsu
Null
Eins
Zwei
Drei
Vier
Fünf
Sechs
Sieben
Acht
Neun
Zehn
Elf
Zwölf
Dreizehn
Vierzehn
Fünfzehn
Sechzehn
Siebzehn
Achtzehn
24
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Neunzehn
ukW;uRlsu
Zwanzig
RLokufRl’k
Einundzwanzig (1and 20)
vkbu mUM RLokufRl’k
22
Zweiundzwanzig(2 and 20)
Rlokb mUM RLokufRl’k
23
Dreiundzwanzig(3 and 30)
nzkb mUM RLokufRl’k
24
……29
30
Dreißig
nzkbZfl’k
31
Einunddreißig vkbUk mUM nzkbZfl’k
32
Zweiunddreißig Rlokb mUM nzkbZfl’k
33
Dreiunddreißig nzkb mUM nzkbZfl’k
34
……39
40
Vierzig
fQ+;jfRl’k
41
Einundvierzig vkbUk mUM fQ+;jfRl’k
42
Zweiundvierzig Rlokb mUM fQ+;jfRl’k
43
Dreiundvierzig nzkb mUM fQ+;jfRl’k
44
……49
50 Fünfzig
¶+;wUQ+fRl’k
……………..
60
sechzig
t+sDlfRl’k
70
siebzig
t+hcfRl’k
80
achtzig
vk[rfRl’k
90
neunzig
ukW;ufRl’k
100 (ein) hundert ¼vkbu½ mUMVZ
19
20
21
25
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200 zweihundert RLokb mUMVZ
300 dreihundert
nzkbZ mUMVZ
1000 (ein) tausend/ zehnhundert
¼vkbu½ [email protected] mUMVZ
1900 neunzehnhundert
ukW;uRlsu mUMVZ
1973 neunzehnhundertdreiundsiebzig
ukW;uRlsu mUMVZ nzkbZ mUM t+hcfRl’k
2000 zweitausend
Rlokb Vkmt+sUV
2008 achtundzweitausend
vk[r mUM Rlokb Vkmt+sUV
10,000 -Zehntausend Rlsu Vkmt+sUV
1,000,000 - eine Million vkbus fefy;ksu
1,000,000,000 eine Milliarde vkbus fefy;kMZ
N.B.In German numbers the decimal point
and comma functions in reversed manner.
e.g. 20,000 becomes 20.000
And 8.70 becomes 8,70
26
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CHAPTER 8
THE
ORDINAL
NUMBERS
The ordinal numbers in German language is
written by putting ‗.‘(a dot or a point) after
the number.
e.g. 1st becomes 1. and 2nd becomes 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
erste ,lZVs
zweite RLokbVs
dritte fnzVs
vierte fQ+,VsZ
fnüfte ¶+;wU¶+Vs
sechste t+sDlVs
siebte t+hCVs
achte vk[Vs
neunte ukW;UVs
zehnte RlsUVs
elfte,Y¶+Vs
27
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
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12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
zwölfte RLoksY¶Vs
dreizehnte nzkbZRlsUVs
vierzehnte fQ+;jRlsUV
fünfzehnte ¶+;wUQ+RlsUVs
sechzehntet+sDlRlsUVs
siebzehntet+hcRlsUVs
achtzehntevk[rRlsUVs
neunzehnteukW;uRlsUVs
zwanzigsteRLokUkfRt+’Vs
RLokUkfRt+’Vs
einundzwanzigste
vkbuRLokUkfRt+’Vs
zweiundzwanzigste
RLokb mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
dreiundzwanzigste
nzkb mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
vierundzwanzigste
fQ+;j mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
fünfundzwanzigste
¶+;wUQ+ mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
sechsundzwanzigste
t+sDl mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
siebenundzwanzigste
t+hcsu mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
28
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
26th
27th
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achtundzwanzigste
28th
vk[r mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
29. neunundzwanzigste
29th
ukW;u mUM RLokUkfRt+’Vs
30. dreißigste
30th
nzkbZfl’Vs
31. einunddreißigste
31th
vkbu mUM nzkbZfl’Vs
………………………………………..
28.
29
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CHAPTER 9
THE DAYS
OF
THE WEEK
Montag eksUVkx
Monday
Dienstag MhUlVkx
Tuesday
MittwochfeVoks[k
Wednesday
Donnerstag MksuslZVkx
Thursday
Freitag ÝkbZVkx
Friday
Sonnabendt+ksukcsUM
Saturday
[In North Germany]
Samstag t+kElVkx
Saturday
[In South Germany and Austria]
Sonntag t+ksuVkx
Sunday
30
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CHAPTER 10
THE MONTHS
OF
THE YEAR
Januar
;kuwvkj
Februar Qs+czwvkj
März
esRlZ
April
vkizhy
Mai
ekbZ
Juni
;wuh
Juli
;wyh
August
vkmxwLV
September t+sIVsEcj
Oktober vksDVkscj
NovemberuksosEcj
DezemberMsRlsEcj
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
31
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CHAPTER 11
THE TIME
What time is it?
Wie spät ist es?
oh ‘isV bLV ,l\
It‘s 1/2/3 o‘clock.
Es ist eins/zwei/drei Uhr.
,l bLV [email protected]@nzkbZ mvjIt‘s quarter past seven.
Es ist Viertel nach sieben.
,l bLV fQ+;sVsZy uk[k t+hcsu
It‘s half past seven.
Es ist halb acht.
,l bLV gkYc vk[r
It‘s five past seven.
Es ist fünf (Minuten) nach sieben.
,l bLV ¶+;wUQ+ ¼feU;wVsu½ uk[k t+hcsuIt‘s quarter to seven.
Es ist drei Viertel sieben.
,l bLV nzkbZ fQ+;sVsZy t+hcsuIt‘s five to seven.
Es ist fünf (Minuten) vor sieben.
,l bLV ¶+;wUQ+ ¼ehU;wVsu½ Q+kWj t+hcsu-
32
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It‘s about seven.
Es ist ungefähr sieben Uhr.
,l bLV mUxsQs+j t+hcsu mvjIt‘s exactly seven o‘clock.
Es ist genau sieben Uhr.
,l bLV xsukvks t+hcsu mvjThe other related expressionsA.M. –vormittags
Q+ksjfeV~VkXl
P.M. - nachmittags
uk[kfeV~VkXl
Noon-mittags
feV~VkXl
Midnight-Mitternacht
feVjuk[V
Yesterday-Gestern
xsLVuZ
Today – Heute
vkW;Vs
Tomorrow- Morgen
eksxsZu
The day before yesterday
-Vorgestern QksjxsLVuZ
The day after tomorrow
-Übermorgen b;wcjeksxsZu
33
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CHAPTER 12
ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of time
abendsvkcsUM
Nachheruk[kj
(in the evening)
(afterwards)
baldckYM
Nachtsuk[V~l
(soon)
(in the night)
danachMkuk[k
nunuwu
(afterwards)
(now)
dannMku(then)
OftvkW¶V(often)
Rechtzeitig
früh Ýwg
js‛VRlkbfV’k
(early)
(in good time)
gleichXykb’k (at once)
Schon’kksu(already)
gleichzeitig
Seltent+sYVsu
Xykb’kRlkbZfV’k
(rarely)
(at the same time)
heute vkW;Vs
Sofortt+ksQk+ sVZ
(today)
(immediately)
immer bej(always)
Spät’isV(late)
34
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Jetzt;sV~LV
(now)
langeykax
(for a long time)
täglichVsXyh‛k
(every day)
Vormittags
Q+ksfeZVkXl
(in the morning)
zuerstRlw,’VZ
(at first)
Manchmal
eka‛keky(sometimes)
morgeneksxsZu
(tomorrow)
morgenseksxsUl
(in the morning)
zuletztRlwysRLV
(at last)
Adverbs for days of the week
donnerstags
Sonntagst+ksUVkXl
(on Thursdays)
(on Sundays)
montagseksUVkXl
freitagsÝkbVkXl
(on Mondays)
(on Fridays)
dienstagsMhUlVkXl
[email protected]
(on Tuesdays)
sonnabends
(on Saturdays)
mittwochsfeVoks[l
(on Wednesdays)
35
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Related Adverbial Phrases
am Montag
jeden Montag
ve eksUVkx
;sMsu eksUVkx
(on Monday)
(every Monday)
am Morgen
jeden Morgen
;sMsu eksxsZu
ve eksxsZu
(every morning)
(in the morning)
am Vormittag
jeden Vormittag
;sMsu Q+ksfeZVkx
ve Q+ksfeZVkx
(every morning)
(in the morning)
am Nachmittag
jeden Nachmittag
ve uk[kfeVkx
;sMsu uk[kfeVkx
(in the afternoon)
(every afternoon)
am Abend
jeden Abend
ve vkcsUM
;sMsu vkcsUM
(in the evening)
(every evening)
in der Nacht
jede Nacht
;sMs uk[V
bu Msj uk[V
(every night)
(in the night)
die ganze Zeit
im Moment
Mh xkURls RlkbV
be eksesUV
(the whole time)
(at the moment)
zweimal in der WocheRLokbZeky bu Msj oks[k
(twice a week)
36
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CHAPTER 13
DIALOGUES BASED ON
THE NUMBERS
What is the date today?
Den wievielten haben wir heute?
Msu ohQ+hYVsu
gkcsu fovj vkW;Vs\
Today is the 14th April 2008
Heute ist der vierzehnte April
achtundzweitausend.
vkW;Vs bLV Msvj fQ+;jRlsUVs vkizhy
vk[r mUM RLokbZ Vkmt+sUVHow old are you?
Wie alt sind Sie?
oh vkYV ft+UM t+h\
I am thirty five years old.
Ich bin fünfunddreißig Jahre alt.
b‛k fcu ¶+;wUQ+mUMnzkbfl’k ;kj vkYV-
37
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What is your telephone number?
Was ist Ihr telefonnummer?
okl bLV bvj VsysQ+ksuU;wej\
My telephone number is 9889191008
Mein Telefonnummer ist
Ekkbu VsysQk+ suU;wej bLV
neun acht acht neun eins neun
ukW;u vk[r vk[r ukW;u vkbUl ukW;u
eins null null acht.
vkbUl uwy uwy vk[rWhen were you born?
Wann sind Sie geboren?
Okku ft+UM t+h xscksjsu\
I was born on 14th April 1973.
Ich bin am vierzehnte April
b‛k fcu vke fQ+;sjRlsUVs vkizhy
neunzehnhundertdreiundsiebzig geboren.
ukW;uRlsu mUMVZ nzkbZ mUM t+hcfRl’k xscksjsuOne Related Dialogue{Where were you born?
Wo sind Sie geboren?
Okks ft+UV t+h xscksjus \
I was in Kanpur.
Ich bin in Kanpur geboren.
b‛k fcu bu dkuiqj xscksjsu-}
38
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CHAPTER 14
THE WEATHER
How is (/will be) the weather (today)?
Wie ist (/wird) das wetter (Heute)?
oh bLV¼@fo;MZ½ Mkl osVj
¼vkW;Vs½\
 It is (/will be) good weather (today).
Es ist (/wird) schönes wetter (Heute).
,l bLV¼@fo;MZ½ ‘;ksusl
osVj
¼vkW;Vs½ It is (/will be) bad weather (today).
Es ist (/wird) schlechtes wetter (Heute).
,l bLV¼@fo;MZ½ ‘ys’Vsl
osVj
¼vkW;Vs½ It is (/will be) cold weather (today).
Es ist (/wird) kalt wetter (Heute).
,l bLV¼@fo;MZ½ dkYV osVj
¼vkW;Vs½ It is (/will be) hot weather (today).
Es ist (/wird) warm wetter (Heute).
,l bLV¼@fo;MZ½ okeZ
osVj
¼vkW;Vs½ It is raining/snowing (today).
Es regent/schneit (Heute).
,l [email protected]‘ukbV ¼vkW;Vs½ It will be raining/ snowing (today).
Es wird regnen/ schneien (Heute).
,l fo;MZ [email protected]‘ukb,u
¼vkW;Vs½-
39
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CHAPTER 15
THE COMMON
QUESTIONS
What
Why
When
Where
Where from
Where to
Who
Whom
To whom
With whom
Which
How
How long
How much
How many
How come
What for
Whose
was
warum
wann
wo
woher
wohin
wer
wen
wem
mit wem
welche(r)
wie
wie lange
wieviel(e)
wieviel(e)
weshalb
wozu
wessen
40
okl
ok:e
oku
oks
oksgsj
oksfgu
osvj
osu
ose
feV ose
osY’ks¼j½
oh
oh ykUx
[email protected]+hys
[email protected]+hys
os’kkYi
oksRlw
oslsu
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CHAPTER 16
THE COMMON
INTERROGATIONS
 Have you (got)….?
Haben Sie…..?gkcsu t+h------\
 Do you need…?
Brauchen Sie…?czkÅ[ksu
t+h-----\
 Can I …?
Kann ich…?dku b‛k------\
 Is…allowed here?
Darf man hier…?MkQZ eku ghj----\
 When can I get….?
Wann kann ich…bekommen?
Okku dku b‛k ----- csdksesu\
 What is that?
Was ist das?Okkl bLV Mkl\
 What would you like?/May I help you?
Was wünschen Sie?Okkl O;wU’ksu t+h\
 Where can I ….?
Wo kann ich…?Okks dku b‛k------\
 Where is(are)…?
Wo ist(sind)….?Okks bLV¼ft+UM½-------\
41
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 Who is there?
Wer ist da?Oksvj bLV Mk\
 Whom do you wish to see?
Zu wem möchten Sie?Rlw ose E;ks‛Vsu t+h\
 What are you looking for?
Was suchen Sie?Okkl t+[w ksu t+h\
 How much does that cost?
Was kostet das?/Wieviel kostet das?
okl dksLVsV Mkl\@ohQ+hy dksLVsV Mkl\
 How much is it?
Wieviel ist es?OkhQ+hy bLV ,l\
 What happened?
Was ist geschehen?Okkl bLV xs’ks,u\
 What does that mean?
Was bedeutet das?Okkl csM~;wVsV Mkl\
42
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CHAPTER 17
THE SEASONS
AND
THE HOLIDAYS
The Seasons
Der Frühling Msj
Der Sommer Msj
Der Herbst Msj
Der Winter Msj
Ý~;qfyax
t+ksej
gsjCLV
foUVj
The Holidays
Ostern vksLVuZ
Weihnachten okbZuk[Vsu
Karfreitag dkjÝ+kbZVkx
Silvester ft+yosLVj
Neujahr U;w;kj
spring
summer
fall/autumn
winter
Easter
Christmas
Good Friday
New Year‘s Eve
New Year‘s day
43
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CHAPTER 18
THE GENDER
Though German and English languages are
emerging from the same root of Germanic
language subfamily of Indo-European language
family, but the gender in the grammatical
structures and terms are not quite like English
language. In English language there are three
genders-masculine, feminine and neuter. And
they correspond to the sex of the person
mentioned, like : He has his table. She has her
table.
But German language is similar to Hindi at
the level of gender because in Hindi the gender
does not correspond to the sex of the person
mentioned but the gender corresponds to the sex
of the thing mentioned, like in the previous
examples His table and her table will remain
the same in Hindi as mldh est (because est+ is
feminine)whether the table is used by man or
woman. [It doesn‘t become mldk est if it is used
by a man.] So is the structure of German
language at the level of gender.We will discuss
the gender in terms of articles, nouns, pronouns
and adjectives in the related chapters.
44
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CHAPTER 19
THE ARTICLES
Usually the gender of a noun is understood
by the articles in German language. Therefore it
is important to learn all the words with the article
specific. Quite like English, German also has two
kinds of articles that is definite(bestimmt fcf’VEV
and indefinite (unbestimmtmufcf’VEV) articles.
To remind , the definite article denotes ‗the‘
and indefinite articles denote ‗a‘ or ‗an‘ in
English. In German, they are more in numbers
and have the specific genders- masculine
singular(m.s.), feminine singular (f.s.) and neuter
singular(n.s.) gender and for plural (pl.) also.
The articles
┌─────────────────┴──────────────┐
Definite
(the)
Der(m.s.)
Msj
Die(f.s.)
Mh
Das(n.s.)
Mkl
Die(pl.)
Mh
indefinite
(a/an)
ein(m.s.)
vkbu
eine(f.s.)
vkbus
ein(n.s.)
vkbu
[no pl.form]
45
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For example:
The man-Der Mann
Msj eku
The woman-Die Frau
Mh Ýkvks
The book-Das Buch
Mkl cw[k
The people-Die Leute
Mh yks;Vs
a man-ein Mann
vkbu eku
a woman-eine Frau
vkbus Ýkvks
a book-ein Buch
vkbu cw[k
No man-kein Mann
dkbu eku
No woman-keine Frau
dkbus Ýkvks
No book-kein Buch
dkbu cw[k
No people-keine Leute
dkbus yks;Vs
46
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CHAPTER 20
THE NOUN
Noun expresses any person, place or thing
and in German they all begin with capital letter
in writing.
The general rules for gender in the nouns Most nouns expressing male people and
animals are masculine.
 Most nouns expressing females are
feminine.
 The inanimate objects may be either
masculine or feminine or neuter gender.
 The gender of the nouns are usually
expressed by the articles or the adjectives
coming with it.
Masculine NounsMasculine nouns are usually names of
males, days, months, seasons, the doer of
something etc. for exampleThe mander Mann
Msj eku
The Mondayder Montag Msj eksUVkx
The Januaryder Januar Msj ;kuqvkj
The summerder Sommer Msj t+ksej
The northder Norden Msj uksMZu
47
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The gardenerder Gärtner Msj xsVZuj
The computer - der ComputerMsj dksEiwVsj
The guitaristder Gitarrist Msj xhVkjh’V
And the nouns ending with -ling, -ich,-ig
are usually masculine, for examplethe apprentice – der Lehrling Msj ysgfyZUXk
the wing –
der Fittich Msj Q+hfV‛k
the honey –
der Honig Msj gksfu’k
The Feminine NounsThe feminine nouns are usually female
names, feminine forms of professions, feminine
aninmals, names of aeroplanes, the rivers, etc.
For exampleThe woman –
die Frau
Mh Ýkvks
The gardener(fem.) die Gärtnerin Mh xsVZusfju
The singeressdie Sängerin Mh t+sUxsfju
The bitch –
die Hündin Mh g~;wfUMu
The boeingdie Boeing Mh cksbax
The Gangadie Ganga Mh xaxk
The Volgadie Wolga Mh oksYxk
48
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Apart from them nouns ending with
-tät, -schaft, -keit, -heit, -ion, -ie, -ei are also
feminine gender . For exampleThe nationality- die Nationalität
Mh ukL;wukfyVsV
The achievement- die Errungenschaft
Mh ,:Uxsu’kk¶V
The unitydie Einegkeit Mh vkbusxdkbV
The nationdie Nation Mh ukfl;ksa
The chemistry- die Chemie Mh ‚kseh
The gardening- die Gärtnerei Mh xsVZusjkbZ
Neuter nounsNeuter nouns are generally the countries, the
continents, the towns, the younger people and
animals, the metals and chemicals, etc. For
exampleThe Europedas EuropaMkl ;wjksik
The Germany- das DeutschlandMkl MkW;pkykaM
The Colognedas KölnMkl D;ksYu
The childdas KindMkl fd.M
The babydas BabyMkl csch
The lambdas LammMkl yke
The calfdas Kalb Mkl dkYc
The irondas Eisen Mkl vkbts+u
49
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Apart from them
the nouns ending with
-lein, -chen, -tum, -um,
English words ending with
–ment and –fon,
most nouns beginning with
Geare also neuter gender.
For exampleThe girl(miss)- das FräuleinMkl ÝkW;ykbu
The girldas MädchenMkl esM~’ksu
The propertydas EigentumMkl vkbxsUVqe
The centredas ZentrumMkl tsUVªqe
The experiment- das ExperimentMkl ,Dlisfjes.V
The microphone- das MikrofonMkl ekbØksQ+ksu
The buildingdas Gebäude Mkl xscksM
The secretdas GeheimnisMkl xsgkbfel
50
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CHAPTER 21
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Fruit
apples
die Äpfel
Mh ,IQs+y
apricots
die Aprikosen
Mh vkizhdkst+su
bananas
die Bananen
Mh ckukusu
cherries
die Kirschen
Mh dhj’ksu
grapefruit
die Grapefruit
Mh xsziÝ+Vw
grapes
die Trauben
Mh Vªkscsu
lemon
die Zitrone
Mh fRl=ksus
melon
die Melone
Mh esyksus
nectarines
die Nektarinen
Mh usDVkjhusu
oranges
die Orangen
Mh vksjkUtsu
peaches
die Pfirsiche
Mh fQt+hZ‛ks
pears
die Birnen
Mh fcusZu
pineapple
die Ananas
Mh vkukukl
51
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plums
die Pflaumen
Mh ¶yksesu
raspberries
die Himbeeren
Mh fgecsjsu
strawberries
die Erdbeeren
Mh ,VZcsjsu
watermelon
die Wassermelone
Mh okljesyksus
asparagus
der Spargel
Msj ‘ikxsZy
carrots
die Karotten
Mh dkjksVsu
cauliflower
der Blumenkohl
Mh Cywesudksy
courgettes
die Zucchini
Mh Rlwdhuh
vegetables
French beans die grünen Bohnen Mh xzwusu cksusu
garlic
der Knoblauch
Msj ukscyks[k
leeks
der Lauch
Msj yks[k
lettuce
der Kopfsalat
Msj dksIQt+kykV
mushrooms
die Pilze
Mh fiYRls
onions
die Zwiebeln
Mh RLohcsYu
52
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peas
die Erbsen
Mh ,cZlsu
peppers
die Paprikaschote
Mh ikizhdk’kksVs
potatoes
die Kartoffeln
Mh dkVksZQs+Yu
spinach
der Spinat
Msj ‘ihukV
tomatoes
die Tomaten
Mh VksekVsu
53
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CHAPTER 22
THE FAMILY &
THE RELATIONS
der Mann Msj eku
der Partner Msj ikVZuj
partner
der Lebenspartner
Msj yscsuikVZuj
der Vater Msj Q+kVj
father
father-in- der Schwiegervater
Msj ‘ohxsjQ+kVj
law
der Großvater
grandfather Msj xzkslQ+kVj
der Opa Msj vksik
der Bruder Msj czwMj
brother
der Zwillingsbruder Msj
twin
brother
RLohfyaXlczwMj
brother-inder Schwager Msj ‘okxj
law
der Sohn Msj t+ksu
son
der Enkel Msj ,adsy
grandson der Enkelsohn Msj
,adsyt+ksu
husband
54
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son-in-law
uncle
nephew
cousin
(male)
der Schwiegersohn Msj
‘ohxjt+ksu
der Onkel Msj vksadsy
der Neffe Msj usQs+
der Cousin Msj dwth+ u
die Frau Mh Ýkvks
die Partnerin Mh ikVZusfju
partner
die Lebenspartnerin Mh
yscsUlikVZusfju
die Mutter Mh ewVj
mother
die Schwiegermutter
mother-in-law
Mh ‘ohxjewVj
die Großmutter Mh
grandmother xzkslewVj
die Oma Mh vksek
die Schwester Mh ‘os’Vj
sister
die Zwillingsschwester
twin sister
Mh RLohfyaXl’os’Vj
die Schwägerin Mh
sister-in-law
‘osxfju
die Tochter Mh rks[rj
daughter
wife
55
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granddaughter
daughter-inlaw
aunt
niece
cousin
(female)
die Enkelin Mh ,adfyu
die Schwiegertochter
Mh ‘ohxsjrks[rj
die Tante Mh rkars
die Nichte Mh uh[rs
die Cousine Mh dwt+hus
das Mädchen Mkl esM~’ksu
girl
child
das Kind Mkl fdaM
grandchild das Enkelkind Mkl ,adsyfdaM
das Einzelkind Mkl
only child
vkbatsy
+ fdaM
56
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CHAPTER 23
THE FOOD AND THE DRINKS
Frühstuck Ýw’Vwd (breakfast):

das Brot Mkl czksV (bread)

das Brötchen Mkl Cz;ks’Vsu (roll)

der Toast Msj Vks‛V (toast)

der Aufschnitt Msj vkmQ’uhV (cold meats
and cheese)

die Butter Mh cwVj (butter)

die Cerealien Mh lsfj;kfy;su (cereal)

das Müsli Mkl E;wLyh (muesli)

die Milch Mh feY‛k (milk)

der Saft Msj t+k¶V (juice)

die Wurst Mh O;w’VZ (sausage)

das Ei Mh vkbZ (egg)

das Spiegelei Mkl ‘ihxsykbZ (fried egg)
57
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Vorspeisen Q+kl
s ZikbZts+u appetizers:



Gemischter Salat xsfe‛Vsj t+kykV (mixed
salad)
Grüner Salat xzuw j t+kykV (green salad)
Melone mit Schinken esyksu feV f’kadsu
(melon with ham)
Soups
Suppen T+;wisu (soups)
Tomatensuppe VksekVsu T+;wis (tomato soup)

Bohnensuppe cksgusu T+;wis (bean soup)
Main dishes
Hauptspeisen gksIr’ikbt+su (main dishes)
Fisch des Tages fQ+’k Ms Vkxs’k (fish of the
day)
Side dishes
Beilagen ckbZykxsu (side dishes)
Butterbohnen cwVjcksgusu (butter beans)
58
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
Gurkensalat xqdsZut+ykV (cucumber salad)

Bratkartoffeln czkVdkVksZQsYu (fried potatoes)
Dessert
zum Nachtisch Rlwe ukf’V‛k (for dessert),:



Frischer Obstsalat fÝ’kj vksC’Vt+kykV fruit
salad)
Apfelstrudel vkIQsy’VªwMsy (apple strudel)
Gemischtes Eis xsfe’Vsl vkbl (mixed ice
cream


Rote Grütze jksVs xzwRls (red berry)
Drinks
ein Wasser mit Kohlensäure vkbu oklj feV
dksgysut+ks;js (carbonated water)
ein Wasser ohne Kohlensäure vkbu oklj
vksg~u dksgysut+ks;js (non-carbonated water).
ein Mineralwasser vkbu feusjky oklj
(mineral water),.
59
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the bottle — die Flasche Mh ¶yk’ks —
or by the glass — das Glas Mkl Xykl.
die Karaffe Mh dkjkQ+ the jug
common drinks, Getränke xsVªkads :

Bier chj (beer)

Wein okbu (wine)

der Weißwein Msj okblokbu (white wine)

der Rotwein Msj jksVokbu (red wine)

der Kaffee Msj dkQ+h (coffee)

der Tee Msj Vs (tea)
60
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CHAPTER 24
THE COLORS
Die Farben Mh Q+kcsZu • Colors
Farbe Q+kcsZ
rot jksV
rosa jkst+k
blau Cykvks
hell- blau
gsy Cykvks
Color
red
pink
blue
light
blue
dark
blue
green
yellow
orange
brown
beige
violet
lilac/mauve
white
dunkel-blau
Mqadsy Cykvks
grünxzwu
gelbxsYc
orangevksjkats
braunczkvksu
beigecht+
violettfo;ksysV
lilayhyk
weißokbl
61
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schwarz'okRlZ
grauxzkvks
türkisVqfdZl
black
gray
turquoise
silberftYcj
goldxksYM
silver
gold
N.B.- Light or dark colors are preceded by hell(light) or dunkel- (dark), as in hellgrün (light
green) or dunkelgrün (dark green).
62
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CHAPTER 25
THE PARTS OF THE BODY
THE BODY
My...hurts Mein (with der and das) ... tut weh
Meine (with die) ... tut weh VqV osg
My...hurt Meine (with all plurals) ... tun weh
Msj DU;ks[ksy
ankle der Knöchel
Msj vkeZ
arm
der Arm
Msj :dsu
back
der Rücken
Msj Duks[ksu
bone
der Knochen
Mkl fdu
chin
das Kinn
Mkl vksgj
ear
das Ohr
Msj ,Ycksxsu
elbow der Ellbogen
Mkl vkmxs
eye
das Auge
Msj fQaxj
finger der Finger
Msj Q+wl
foot
der Fuß
Mh gkUM
hand
die Hand
Msj dksIQ+
head
der Kopf
Mkl gsRlZ
heart
das Herz
Mh áw¶Vs
hip
die Hüfte
Mkl xsysad
joint
das Gelenk
63
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kidney die Niere
knee
das Knie
leg
das Bein
liver
die Leber
mouth der Mund
nail
der Nagel
neck
der Hals
nose
die Nase
stomach der Magen
throat die Kehle
thumb der Daumen
toe
die Zehe
wrist
das Handgelenk
64
Mh uhjs
Mkl Duh
Mkl ckbu
Mh yscj
Msj eqaM
Msj ukxsy
Msj gkYl
Mh ukts+
Msj ekxsu
Mh dsgys
Msj Mkmesu
Mh Rlsgs
Mkl gkaMxsysUd
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CHAPTER 26
THE CLOTHES
English
belt
blouson
boot
bow-tie
bracelet
cap
cardigan (pl.)
clothes (pl.)
coat
dress
dressing-gown
duffle-coat
German
der Gürtel (-)
das/der Blouson (-s)
der Stiefel (-)
die Fliege (-n)
das Armband
(pl. -bänder)
die Mütze (-n)
Hindi
Msj xqVsZy
Msj Cywt+ksa
Msj 'VhQ+sy
Mh ¶yhxs+¼u½
Msj vkeZck.M
Mh ewRls¼u½
Mh
die Strickjacke (-n) 'Vªhdtkds¼u½
die Kleider (pl.)
Mh DykbMj
die Kleidung (no
Mh DykbMqax
pl.)
Msj ekUVsy
der Mantel (pl. Mh esUVsy
Mäntel)
Mkl DykbM
das Kleid (-er)
der Bademantel (pl. Msj
ckMsekUVsy
-mäntel)
der Morgenrock (pl. Msj
ekWxsZujkWd
-röcke)
der Dufflecoat (-s) Msj
65
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earring
fur coat
glasses (pl.)
glove
handkerchief
hat
headscarf
jacket
jeans
knickers (pl.)
necklace
pyjamas (pl.)
pullover
raincoat
sandal
der Ohrring (-e)
der Pelzmantel (pl. mäntel)
die Brille (-n)
der Handschuh (-e)
das Taschentuch (pl.
-tücher)
der Hut (pl. - Hüte)
das Kopftuch (pl. tücher)
die Jacke (-n)
die Jeans (-)
das Höschen (-)
der Schlüpfer (-)
die Halskette (-n)
der Schlafanzug (pl.
-anzüge)
der Pullover (-)
der Pulli (-s)
der Regenmantel
(pl. -mäntel)
die Sandale (-n)
66
MqQy
+ dksV
Msj vksgfjax
Msj
isYRlekUVsy
Mh czhys¼u½
Msj gk.M'kwg
Mkl
Vk'ksuVw[k
Msj gwV
Mkl
dksQ+Vw[k
Mh tkds¼u½
Mh thUl
Mkl áks'ksu
Msj 'ywQj+
Msj
'ykQ+kURlq[k
Msj iwyksoj
Msj iwyh
Msj
jsxsuekUVsy
Mh t+k.Mkys
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scarf
shirt
shoe
shorts (pl.)
skirt
slipper
sock
suit
der Schal (pl. -s or e)
das Hemd (-en)
der Schuh (-e)
die Shorts (pl.)
der Rock (pl. Röcke)
der Hausschuh (-e)
der Pantoffel (-n)
die Socke (-n)
der Anzug (pl. Anzüge)
suit (for women) das Kostüm (-e)
sun-glasses
tie
trousers (pl.)
uniform
wristwatch
die Sonnenbrille (n)
die Krawatte (-n)
der Schlips (-e)
die Hose (-n)
die Uniform (-en)
die Armbanduhr (en)
67
Msj 'kky
Mkl gsEM
Msj 'kw[k
Mh 'kkWVZ
Msj jkWd
Msj
gkml'kw[k
Mh t+kWds
Msj vkURlq[k
Mkl
dkWLV~;ew
Mh
tkWusuczhys¼u½
Mh ØkokVs
Mh gkst+s
Mh ;wuhQ+ksEkZ
Mh
vkeZckUMqj
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CHAPTER 27
THE ANIMALS
bear
bird
buffalo
bull
butterfly
camel
cat
chimpanzee
cow
crocodile
crow
deer
dog
donkey
eagle
elephant
fish
der Bär
der Vogel
der Büffel
der Stier
der
Schmetterling
das Kamel
die Katze
der
Schimpanse
die Kuh
das Krokodil
die Krähe
das Reh
der Hund
der Esel
der Adler
der Elefant
der Fisch
68
Msj
Msj
Msj
Msj
Msj
csj
oksxsy
C;wQ+sy
‘Vhj
‘esVjfyax
Mkl dkesy
Mh dkV~ts+
Msj f’kaEikUt+s
Mh dwg
Mkl ØksdksfMy
Mh Øsgs
Mkl jsg
Msj gq.M
Msj ,t+sy
Msj vkMyj
Msj ,ysQ+k.V
Msj fQ+’k
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fox
frog
giraffe
goat
hen
hippopotamus
horse
insect
jackal
kangaroo
lion
lizard
monkey
mosquito
mouse
octopus
ostrich
ox
panda
der Fuchs
der Frosch
die Giraffe
die Ziege
die Henne
das Nilpferd
das Pferd
das Insekt
der Schakal
das Känguru
der Löwe
Löwen
die Eidechse
der Affe
Affen
der Moskito
die Maus
der Krake
der Strauß
der Ochs
der Panda
69
Msj Q+qDl
Msj Ýks’k
Mh ftjkQs
Mh fRl;sxs
Mh gsus
Mkl uhyQsMZ
Mkl QsMZ
Mkl bUlsDV
Msj ‘kkdky
Mkl dsUxw:
Msj Y;kso
¼Y;ksosu½s
Mh vkbMs’ks
Msj vkQs
¼vkQsu½
Msj eksLdhVks
Mh ekml
Msj Økds
Msj ‘Vªkml
Msj vksDl
Msj ik.Mk
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penguin
pig
pigeon
rabbit
rhinoceros
sheep
snake
sow
tiger
turtle
vulture
whale
wolf
zebra
der Pinguin
das Schwein
die Taube
das
Kaninchen
das Nashorn
das Schaf
die Schlange
die Sau
der Tiger
die
Schildkröte
der Geier
der Wal
der Wolf
das Zebra
70
Msj fiaxqbu
Mkl ‘okbu
Mh Vkvkscs
Mh dkuhU’ksu
Mkl uk’kksuZ
Mkl ‘kkQ+
Mh ‘ykaxs
Mh lkvks
Msj Vhxj
Mh f’kYMØ~;ksVs
Msj xkb;j
Msj oky
Msj oksYQ+
Mkl Rlsczk
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CHAPTER 28
THE HOUSE
Die Zimmer in
Mh fRlej bu
einem Haus oder vkbuse gkml vksMj
in einer Wohnung bu vkbusj oksguqUx
Rooms in an
Apartment or House
der AbstellraumMsj vkC’Vsyjkme
storage room
das ArbeitszimmerMkl vkjckbVfRlej
office, workroom
das BadezimmerMkl ckMfRlej
das BadMkl ckM
bathroom/bath
der BalkonMsj ckYdksu
balcony
das BüroMkl C;wjks
office
das EsszimmerMkl ,lfRlej
dining room
71
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der FlurMsj ¶ywjhall, entry
die Garage Mh xkjktgarage
der Keller Msj dsyj
cellar, basement
das Kinderzimmer Mkl fdUMjfRlej
children's room
die KücheMh dw‛kskitchen
das SchlafzimmerMkl ‘ykQ+fRlej
bedroom
die Toilette/das WCMh [email protected] osls
toilet (room)
die WaschkücheMh ok’kdw‛ks
laundry room
das WohnzimmerMkl oksg~ufRlejliving room
CHAPTER 29
THE FURNITURE AND
HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES
72
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Möbel und E;kscsy mUM
Haushaltsgeräte gkmlgkYV~lxsjsVs
Furniture and
Household Appliances
der AnrufbeantworterMsj vku:QchUVoksVZj
answering machine
der Backofen Msj ckdksQs+u
oven
das BettMkl csV
bed
das BücherregalMkl C;w‛ksjsxsy
bookshelf
der ComputerMsj dksEiwVsj
der RechnerMsj js‛usj
computer
die CouchMh dkm‛k
couch
der HerdMsj gsMZrange, stove
die Kaffeemaschine
coffee makerMh dkQ+h ek’khu
der KleiderschrankMsj DykbMjJkad
clothes closet/cabinet
die KommodeMh dkseksMchest of drawers
73
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der KühlschrankMsj D;wyJkadrefrigerator
die LampeMh ykailamp, light
der NachttischMh ukf[V’knight stand
der SchreibtischMsj JkbcfV’kdesk
der SesselMsj lslsyeasy chair
das SofaMkl lksQ+ksofa
die StehlampeMh ‘VsgykEifloor lamp
derStaubsaugerMsj‘Vkscslksxjvacuumcleaner
das TelefonMkl VsysQ+ksutelephone
der TrocknerMsj Vªksdujdrier
die WaschmaschineMh ok’kek’khuwasher
das Bild (-er)Mkl [email protected]
das Dach (Dächer)Mkl Mk’[email protected]’kjroof
das Fenster (-)Mkl Q+sU’Vjwindow
der Spiegel (-) Msj ‘ihx+symirror
die Treppe (-n) Mh Vª[email protected]ªsisustairway, stairs
die Tür (-en) Mh V~;jw @V~;wjsudoor
die Wand (Wände) Mh [email protected]
74
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CHAPTER 30
THE MODES OF TRANSPORT
75
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Aeroplane
Train
Bus
Car
Taxi
Motorcycle
Cycle
Ship
Boat
die Flugzeug
das Zeug
das (Omni)bus
das Auto
die Taxi
die Motorrad
die Fahrrad
die Schiff
das Boot
Mh ¶ywxT+;w‛k
Mkl T+ ;w‛k
Mkl ¼vkseuh½cwl
Mkl vkmVks
Mh VkDlh
Mh eksVksjkM
Mh QkgjkM
Mh f’Kq
Mkl cwV
CHAPTER 31
THE SHOPS
76
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baker's
bookshop
butcher's
cake shop
clothes
department
store
dry-cleaner's
electrical
goods
fishmonger's
furniture
gifts
greengrocer's
grocer's
hairdresser's
health food
shop
household
(goods)
ironmonger's
bäckerei
buchhandlung
fleischerei
konditorei
kleidung
warenhaus
csdsjkbZ
cw[k gkUMywax
¶ykb’jkbZ
dksaMhVksjkbZ
DykbMwax
Okkjsu gkml
reinigung
elektrogeschäft
Jkbuhxwax
,ysDVªksxs’ks¶V
fQ+’kykMsu
fischladen
möbelgeschäft E;kcsyxs’ks¶V
geschenkartikel xs’ksUdvkVhZdsy
xsE;wt+sykMsu
gemüseladen
lebensmittelladen yscsu’ehVsyykMsu
Ýht+j
friseur
jsQ+kWeZgkml
reformhaus
haushaltswaren
gkmlgkYV~lokjsu
eisenwarenhandlung
vkbt+suokjsugkUMywax
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jeweller's
market
pharmacy
records
self-service
shoe shop
shop
sports shop
stationer's
supermarket
tobacconist's
toy shop
juwelier
markt
apotheke
schallplatten
selbstbedienung
schuhgeschäft
laden
sportgeschäft
schreibwarenhandlung
supermarkt
tabakladen
spielwarenladen
;wosfy;j
ekDVZ
vkiksFksds
‘kkyIykVsu
t+sYCLVcsMhuqax
‘kwxs’ks¶V
ykMsu
LiksVZxs’ks¶V
JkbcokjsugkUMywax
t+wijekDVZ
VkckdykMsu
‘ihyokjsuykMsu
CHAPTER 32
THE PRONOUN
Singular
ich b‛k I [I person singular]
du n~;w you [II person singular]
Sie t+h you [II person singular polite]
78
eSa
rqe
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er ,j
sie t+h
es ,l
Plural
wir ohj
ihr bvj
Sie t+h
sie t+h
he
she
it
og¼iq-½
[III person singular feminine]og¼L=h-½
[III person singular neuter] ;[email protected] ¼uiq-½
[III person singular masculin]
we [I person plural]
you [II person plural informal]
you [II person plural polite]
they[III person plural]
ge
rqe yksxyou guys
vki yksx
os
When learning the German pronouns, note that:



The German pronoun "ich" does not start
with a capital letter, unlike its English
equivalent "I".
The third person pronouns "er", "sie" and
"es" can refer to persons. However they also
substitute for all masculine, feminine and
neuter nouns respectively, regardless of
whether they are persons or things.
Note that the pronoun "sie" can either mean
"she(og L=h-)" or "they(os) " depending on
context. they look similar but they are
understood by the reference and they are
differentiated by the specific verb forms
followed by the pronoun. And when it
begins with a capital letter "Sie" is the
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formal form of "you"! Be very careful how
you use this pronoun.
Sie or du?








The familiar or informal form "du" is used
when talking to relatives, close friends and
children.
It does not start with a capital letter.
The plural of "du" is "ihr".
The formal form "Sie" is used when you
need to be more polite.
It is the usual form of address when talking
to an adult whom you don't know well or at
all.
A child would always say "Sie" to an adult
outside his or her own family.
"Sie" always starts with a capital letter.
The plural form of "Sie" is also "Sie".
CHAPTER 33
THE TENSES
The tenses in German are not exactly like
English tenses. One tense in German may denote
two or three tenses of English.
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Here is the equivalence of the English and
German tensesPresent Indefinite tense
Präsens
present continuous tense
Präsens
Present perfect tense
Perfekt
Present perfect Continuous tense Perfekt
past indefinite tense
Perfekt
past continuous tense
Präteritum
past perfect tense
Pluperfekt
past perfect continuous tense
Pluperfekt
future indefinite tense
Futur
future continuous tense
Futur
future perfect tense
Futur perfekt
future perfect continuous tense
Futur perfekt
Therefore there are 6 basic tenses in German,
namelyPräsensiszt+sUl, PerfektijQ+sDV,
PräteritumizsVsfjVqe, PluperfektIywijQ+sDV,
FuturQq+Vwj, Futur PerfektQq+Vwj ijQ+sDV
CHAPTER 34
THE VERBS
At the level of verbs German is quite like
Sanskrit. As in Sanskrit we have different verbs
forms for different pronouns and there are
singular and plural verb forms, in German also,
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there are the roots of the verbs and they have the
different forms. As in Sanskrit we can create the
other verb forms by following an example of a
verb, we do the same in German also.
There are two kinds of verbs in German –
The Verbs
┌──────────────┼─────────────┐
Weak
(regular)
Strong
(irregular)
The auxiliary verbs, modal verbs, seperable
verbs, dative verbs and reflexive verbs also fall
under either weak or strong verbs‘ category in
German language. We will discuss them in
different chapters.
The weak verbs- the vast majority of German
verbs are weak verbs and they follow a single
pattern in their verb forms with different
pronouns or subjects. For exampleMachenek[ksu=to do
LernenysusZu=to learn
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TanzenVkUt+su=to dance
Heißengkblsu= to be called
ArbeitenvkjckbVsu=to work
KlingelnfDyaxsYu=to ring
The strong verbs- most of the strong verbs
behave like regular or weak verbs in present
tense with few exceptions. But they are irregular
in past tense where they change their stem
vowels and quite often in their past participle.
We will discuss them with examples later in past
tense. For exampleGebenxscsu=to give
Essen,lsu=to eat
GeltenxsYVsu=to be valid
TretenVªsVsu=to step
Sehent+sgsu=to see
StehlenLVsysu=to steal
FahrenQ+kgjsu=to drive
EinladenvkbuykMsu=to invite
HaltengkYVsu=to hold/stop
Auxiliary verbssein t+kbu
to be
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haben gkcsu
werden osMZsu
to have
to become
Modal verbs"dürfen"M~;wQ+Zsu= may /to be allowed to
"können"D;ksusu= can
"mögen"E;ksxsu= to like
"müssen"E;wlsu= must/ have to
"sollen"t+ksysu= should / to be meant to
"wollen"oksysu= to want
"wissen"folsu=to know
CHAPTER 35
PRÄSENS izst+sal
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This tense is equivalent to
Present indefinit and present
continuous tenses in English. It
denotes the sentences like: ‗ I learn
or I am learning‘. The verbs of this
tense have the forms. The weak or
regular verbs behave in a similar
pattern, that is, one can easily frame
the other verbs‘ forms by learning
one. The strong or the irregular verbs
behave in irregular manner, but
those are quite predictable.
The auxiliary verbs(to be, to
have, to become) are strong verbs.
They are quite important because
they not only behave like in English
but also they form other tenses too.
The modal verbs(may, can, to
like, must, should and want) are also
strong verbs.
CHAPTER 36
THE AUXILIARY VERBS
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The auxiliary verbs are sein (to be), haben (to
have) and werden (to become), which in addition
to their literal meanings are also used in the
construction of other German tenses and moods:
"sein"t+kbu =to be
Singular
ich bin fcu
du bist fc’V
Sie sind ft+UM
Er/sie/es ist bLV
Plural
wir sind ft+UM
ihr seid t+kbM
Sie sind ft+UM
sie sind ft+UM
86
I am
You are
(informal/formal)
He/she/it is
We are
You are
(informal/formal)
They are
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"haben" gkcsu= to have
Singular
I have
ich habe gkcs
You have
du hast gkLV
(informal/formal)
Sie haben gkcsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
has
hat gkV
Plural
We have
wir haben gkcsu
You have
ihr habt gkCV
(informal/formal)
Sie haben gkcsu
They have
sie haben gkcsu
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"werden" osMsZu= to become
Singular
I become
ich werde osMsZ
You
du wirst foLVZ
become
Sie werden osMsZu
(informal/formal)
er/sie/es
wird foMZ
Plural
wir werden osMsZu
ihr werdet osMsZV
Sie werden osMsZu
He/she/it
becomes
We become
You
become
(informal/formal)
sie werden osMsZu
They
become
CHAPTER 37
THE NEGATIVE
A sentence can be made negative by placing
nicht fu‛V
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And it always follows the verb, for exampleThe negative form of ‘sein’= to beSingular
Ich bin nicht
I am not
du bist nicht
you are not
Sie sind nicht
You are not
Er/sie/er ist nicht
he/she/it is not
Plural
wir sind nicht
we are not
ihr seid nicht
you are not
Sie sind nicht
You are not
sie sind nicht
they are not
This method can universally be applied to any
sentence.
We can make negative by replacing ein with
kein dkbu[the negative of the indefinite article
ein] also.for exampleHaben= to have-
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Singular
ich habe ein
I have a
du hast ein
you have a
Sie haben ein
you have a
er/sie/es hat ein he/she/es has a
Plural
wir haben ein
we have a
ihr habt ein
you have a
Sie haben ein
you have a
sie haben ein
they have a
Negative of habenEin will be replaced by kein
Singular
ich habe kein
I have no
du hast kein
you have no
Sie haben kein
you have no
Er/sie/es hat kein
he/she/it has no
Plural
wir haben kein
we have no
ihr habt kein
you have no
Sie haben kein
you have no
sie haben kein
they have no
Sie haben kein
you have no
CHAPTER 38
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THE INTERROGATIVE
While making the interrogative sentences
the subject follows the verb.
For example
The interrogative of sein
Singular
Bin ich?fcu b‛k\
Am I?
Bist du? fc’V n~;w\
Are you?
Sind Sie ? ft+UM t+h\
Are you?
Ist er/sie/es ?bLV ,[email protected][email protected],l\Is he/she/it?
Plural
Sind wir? ft+UM ohj\
Are we?
Seid ihr? t+kbM bvj\
Are you?
Sind Sie ? ft+UM t+h\
Are you?
Sind sie? ft+UM t+h\
Are they?
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CHAPTER 39
WEAK OR REGULAR VERBS
The present tense of German verbs is formed
by the infinitive of the verb. This is the part of
speech which equates to the English "to do", "to
speak" etc. In German, the infinitive almost
always ends in "-en". To construct the
individual forms, we remove the "-en" from
the infinitive and add personal endings which
link the verb with the subject in terms of person
(i.e. first, second or third person) or number (i.e.
singular or plural). We say that the verb 'agrees'
with the subject, in that German verbs show the
person and the number of the subject of the verb
by means of their endings.
1.Most of the verb endings for the present tense
of the regular or 'weak' German verb follow the
pattern of machen (to do), which are as follows:
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"machen" ek[ksu = to do
Singular
I do
ich macheb‛k ek[ks
You do
du machst n~;w ek[‘V
(informal/formal)
Sie machen t+h ek[ksu
He/she/it does
er/sie/es macht
,[email protected][email protected],l ek[V
Plural
wir machen fo;j ek[ksu
ihr macht bvj ek[V
Sie machen t+h ek[ksu
sie machen t+h ek[ksu
We do
You do
(informal/formal)
They do
The pattern is as followsafter removal of -en from the verb, we add
e for ich form
st for du form
en for Sie form
t for er/sie /es form
en for wir form
t for ihr form
en for Sie form
en for sie form
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Let us see one more example of this
mostly used pattern
"lernen"ysusZu=to learn
Singular
I learn
ich lerneysusZ
You learn
du lernstysj~ULV
(informal/formal)
Sie lernenysusZu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
learns
lerntysUVZ
Plural
We learn
wir lernenysusZu
You learn
ihr lerntysUVZ
(informal/formal)
Sie lernenysusZu
They learn
sie lernenysusZu
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2. Verbs with a stem* ending in -z, -ss, -ß,
-s and -x
Basic
conjugation
rule
German verbs whose infinitive stem ends in
-z, -ss, -ß, -s and -x
add -t and not -st in the "du" form of the
present tense. For example"tanzen" rkURlsu=to dance
Singular
I dance
ich tanze rkURls
You dance
du tanzt rkURLV
(informal/formal)
Sie tanzen rkURlsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es tanzt rkURLV
dances
Plural
We dance
wir tanzen rkURlsu
You dance
ihr tanzt rkURLV
(informal/formal)
Sie tanzen rkURlsu
They dance
sie tanzen rkURlsu
*stem means after the removal of en from the verb (infinitive)
i.e. stem in Tanzen is z (which is before -en)
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Let us see one more example of this pattern
"heißen"gkblsu= to be called
Singular
I am called
ich heiße gkbls
You are
du heißt gkbLV
called
Sie heißen gkblsu
(informal/formal)
er/sie/es heißt gkbLV He/she/it
is
called
Plural
We are
wir heißen gkblsu
called
You are
ihr heißt gkbLV
called
Sie heißen gkblsu
(informal/formal)
sie heißen gkblsu
2.1Verbs
with
a
They are
called
stem in
ending
in
-z
These verbs include ächzen (to groan), beizen (to steep, to treat), beschmutzen
(to make dirty), blitzen (to flash), duzen (to say "du" to someone), ergänzen (to
complete), faulenzen (to laze about), geizen (to be miserly), glänzen (to gleam, to
shine), grenzen (to border), heizen (to heat), hetzen (to hound), jauchzen (to
cheer), krächzen (to croak), kratzen (to scratch), kreuzen (to cross), kürzen (to
shorten), lechzen (to pant), nutzen (to be of use, to use), pflanzen (to plant),
platzen (to burst), putzen (to clean), reizen (to irritate, to stimulate), schätzen (to
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estimate), scherzen (to joke), schluchzen (to sob), schmerzen (to hurt),
schnalzen (to crack, to click), schnäuzen (to blow one's nose), schnitzen (to cut),
schützen (to protect), schwärzen (to blacken), schwatzen (to chatter), schwitzen
(to sweat), setzen (to put), seufzen (to groan), siezen (to say "Sie" to someone),
spitzen (to sharpen), spritzen (to inject), strotzen (to be full), stützen (to
support), stutzen (to trim; to hesitate), tanzen (to dance), trotzen (to defy),
verletzen (to injure), verschmutzen (to pollute), wälzen (to roll, to writhe),
würzen (to spice).
2.2 Verbs with a stem in ending in -ss
These include beeinflussen (to influence), erpressen (to blackmail), fassen (to
seize, to grasp), hassen (to hate), hissen (to hoist), küssen (to kiss), passen (to fit,
to suit), stressen (to put under stress), verblassen (to fade), vermissen (to miss).
2.3 Verbs with a stem in ending in -ß
These include beißen (to bite), büßen (to atone, to pay for), einflößen (to instil
into someone), entblößen (to expose), fließen (to flow), fußen (to be based on),
grüßen (to greet), heißen (to be called), mutmaßen (to conjecture), rußen (to
smoke, to produce soot), schweißen (to weld), spaßen (to joke), süßen (to
sweeten).
2.4 Verbs with a stem in ending in -s
These include brausen (to roar, to thunder), bremsen (to brake), dösen (to doze),
einheimsen (to collect, to rake in), entgleisen (to be derailed; to misbehave),
grasen (to graze), grinsen (to grin), hausen (to live; to wreak), hopsen (to hop),
knipsen (to punch, to clip), kreisen (to circle), leasen (to lease), lösen (to
remove; to buy), losen (to draw lots), niesen (to sneeze), piepsen (to bleep; to
chirrup), rasen (to race), reisen (to travel), schmausen (to feast), speisen (to
dine), tosen (to roar, to rage), verharmlosen (to play down), verlosen (to raffle),
verwahrlosen (to fall into disrepair), verzinsen (to pay interest in), weisen (to
point).
2.5 Verbs with a stem in ending in -x
These include boxen (to box), faxen (to fax), fixen (to fix, to shoot up (drugs)),
hexen (to practise witchcraft), mixen (to mix), relaxen (to relax).
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3. Verbs with a stem ending in –d or –t or -m
In the present tense, German verbs whose
infinitive stem ends in –d or –t or -m:



add -est and not -st in the "du" form
add -et and not -t in the "er/sie/es" form
add -et and not -t in the "ihr" form
"arbeiten" vkjckbVsu = to work
Singular
ich arbeite vkjckbVs I work
du arbeitest vkjckbVsLV You work
Sie arbeiten vkjckbVsu (informal/formal)
He/she/it
er/sie/es
works
arbeitet vkjckbVsV
Plural
wir arbeiten vkjckbVsu We work
ihr arbeitet vkjckbVsV You work
Sie arbeiten vkjckbVsu (informal/formal)
sie arbeiten vkjckbVsu They work
3.1Verbs with a stem in ending in -d include:
A-E: ahnden (to avenge, to punish), aufbürden (to encumber), baden (to bathe),
beenden (to end), beneiden (to envy), bilden (to form), binden (to tie), blenden
(to dazzle), downloaden (to download), dulden (to tolerate), enden (to end),
erkunden (to find out, to reconnoitre), ermorden (to murder), ermüden (to tire)
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F-M: fahnden (to search for), sich gebärden (to conduct oneself), gefährden (to
endanger), gründen (to found), kleiden (to dress), landen (to land), melden (to
report),
münden
(to
flow
into,
to
lead)
N-S: pfänden (to impound), reden (to speak), roden (to clear), runden (to
round), schaden (to damage), schmieden (to forge), schneiden (to cut), schulden
(to owe), senden (to send), sieden (to boil), spenden (to donate), stranden (to run
aground, to be stranded), stunden (to give someone time to pay)
T-Z: verabschieden (to say goodbye to), verfremden (to defamiliarize),
vergeuden (to waste), verschwenden (to waste), verschwinden (to disappear),
verwunden (to wound), vollenden (to complete), wenden (to turn), zünden (to
ignite)
3.2Verbs with a stem in ending in -t include:
A-E: achten (to respect), antworten (to answer), arbeiten (to work), auflisten
(to list), ausbeuten (to exploit), ausbooten (to kick out), ausbreiten (to spread
out), auskundschaften (to find out), ausmisten (to muck out), ausrotten (to
eradicate), ausstatten (to equip), befristen (to limit), begleiten (to accompany),
begutachten (to give expert advice about), behaupten (to assert), beichten (to
confess), bekleiden (to dress, to clothe), belasten (to burden), belichten (to
expose), beobachten (to observe), bereiten (to prepare), beten (to pray),
bewerten (to evaluate), bewirten (to feed; to entertain), bitten (to ask), bluten (to
bleed), brüsten (to boast), brüten (to brood), bürsten (to brush), dichten (to
write, to compose), deuten (to point), duften (to smell), dünsten (to steam, to
stew), entkräften (to weaken; to refute), sich erkälten (to catch a cold), ernten
(to
harvest),
erröten
(to
blush)
F-M: falten (to fold), flirten (to flirt), flüchten (to flee), fürchten (to fear),
gestalten (to shape), gestatten (to permit), gewährleisten (to guarantee), haften
(to be legally responsible), härten (to harden), hasten (to hurry), heften (to pin,
to fix), heiraten (to marry), horten (to hoard), husten (to cough), hüten (to look
after), kneten (to knead), knoten (to knot), kosten (to cost), läuten (to ring),
lauten (to be, to amount to), leisten (to achieve), leiten (to lead), leuchten (to
shine),
lüften
(to
air),
mieten
(to
rent,
to
hire)
N-S: pachten (to lease), punkten (to score points), pusten (to puff, to blow),
retten (to save), richten (to direct, to focus), rosten (to rust), rüsten (to arm),
schalten (to switch), schlachten (to slaughter), schlichten (to mediate, to
arbitrate), schmachten (to languish, to pine), schütten (to pour), sichten (to look
through), spalten (to split), spotten (to mock), spurten (to spurt), starten (to
start),
stiften
(to
found,
to
donate)
T-Z: tasten (to feel, to grope), testen (to test), töten (to kill), trachten (to strive),
trösten (to console), übernachten (to spend the night), veralten (to grow old),
veranstalten (to organize), verarzten (to patch up), verbluten (to bleed to death),
verbreiten (to spread), verdursten (to die of thirst), verhaften (to arrest),
verkraften (to cope with), vermarkten (to market), vermuten (to assume),
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vernichten (to destroy), verpflichten (to oblige, to commit), verrichten (to
perform, to carry out), sich verspäten (to be late), verunstalten (to disfigure, to
scar), verwüsten (to devastate, to ravage), verzichten (to do without),
vorbereiten (to prepare), warten (to wait), werten (to rate), wetten (to bet),
wirtschaften (to economize), wüten (to rage), züchten (to breed).verbs with a
stem in -t also include a number of verbs recently imported from English:
babysitten (to baby-sit), chatten (to chat), jetten (to jet), layouten (to layout),
sich outen (to out oneself), promoten (to promote), toasten (to toast).
3.3Verbs with stems ending in a consonant -n or
-m Such verbs include begegnen (to meet), bewaffnen (to arm), sich eignen (to
be suitable), entgegnen (to reply), sich ereignen (to happy), leugnen (to deny),
öffnen (to open), ordnen (to order, to organize), rechnen (to calculate), regnen
(to rain), segnen (to bless), trocknen (to dry), vervollkommnen (to perfect), sich
wappnen (to prepare oneself), zeichnen (to draw). Normal present tense endings
are applied however:
4. Verbs ending in –eln or in –ern
In the present tense, German verbs whose
infinitive stem ends in –eln or -ern form their
present tense by removing the -n of the stem and
adding the normal endings. Note however:

that the -e of the stem is omitted in the first
person singular –
i.e. ich klingle, ich sammle



that the "wir" ending on such verbs is -n, not
-en
that the formal "Sie" ending is also -n
that the third person plural ending is also -n,
not -en
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Let us see the example "klingeln"fDyxsYu= to ring
Singular
I ring
ich klinglefDyxys
du klingelstfDyxsYLV You ring
Sie klingelnfDyxsYu (informal/formal)
He/she/it
er/sie/es
rings
klingeltfDyxsYV
Plural
wir klingelnfDyxsYu We ring
You ring
ihr klingeltfDyxsYV
Sie klingelnfDyxsYu (informal/formal)
sie klingelnfDyxsYu They ring
4.1Other verbs with a stem in ending in -eln
include:
A-E: abwiegeln (to calm down), ähneln (to resemble), angeln (to go fishing),
anzetteln (to instigate), aufwiegeln (to stir up), basteln (to make things with your
hands), baumeln (to dangle), behandeln (to treat), bemängeln (to find fault
with), besiegeln (to seal), blinzeln (to blink), bröckeln (to crumble), bügeln (to
iron), bummeln (to stroll), einkesseln (to encircle), ekeln (to disgust), entwickeln
(to develop), entwurzeln (to uproot), erdrosseln (to throttle), ermitteln (to
determine)
F-M: fesseln (to tie, to bind), frösteln (to shiver), fummeln (to fiddle, to fumble),
gipfeln (to culminate), grübeln (to brood), gruseln (to give the creeps), gurgeln
(to gargle, to gurgle), hageln (to hail), häkeln (to crochet), handeln (to act),
hätscheln (to pamper), heucheln (to be a hypocrite), hobeln (to plane), humpeln
(to hobble, to limp), hüsteln (to cough slightly), jobeln (to yodel), jubeln (to
celebrate), kitzeln (to tickle), klingeln (to ring), knebeln (to gag), kränkeln (to
be poorly), kribbeln (to tickle), kritzeln (to scribble), lächeln (to smile), mäkeln
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(to carp, to cavil), mangeln (to lack), maßregeln (to reprimand), mogeln (to
cheat),
murmeln
(to
murmur)
N-S: nieseln (to drizzle), nörgeln (to moan, to crumble), pendeln (to swing; to
commute), pinseln (to paint), prügeln (to beat), rätseln (to rack your brains),
regeln (to regulate), rodeln (to toboggan), runzeln (to wrinkle), rütteln (to
shake), sammeln (to collect), satteln (to saddle), schaufeln (to shovel),
schaukeln (to rock, to sway), schimmeln (to go mouldy), schlafwandeln (to
sleepwalk), sich schlängeln (to wind its way, to snake), schmeicheln (to flatter),
schmuggeln (to smuggle), schmunzeln (to smile), schnüffeln (to sniff, to
snuffle), schütteln (to shake), schwindeln (to feel dizzy; to con), segeln (to sail),
spiegeln (to reflect, to mirror), sprudeln (to bubble, to fizz), stammeln (to
stammer), stempeln (to stamp; to postmark), straucheln (to stumble), streicheln
(to
caress,
to
stroke)
T-Z: tadeln (to blame), taumeln (to stagger, to sway), trampeln (to stamp your
feet), trödeln (to dawdle), trommeln (to drum), tröpfeln (to drip), sich tummeln
(to romp about), tuscheln (to whisper), übersiedeln (to move, to migrate),
umkrempeln (to turn up), verdoppeln (to double), verdunkeln (to darken),
vereiteln (to thwart, to foil), verhandeln (to negotiate), verwandeln (to change,
to transform), verwechseln (to confuse), wackeln (to wobble, to shake), wandeln
(to walk; to stroll), wechseln (to change), wedeln (to wag), wickeln (to wind, to
wrap), wimmeln (to swarm, to teem), winseln (to whimper), zerbröckeln (to
crumble), zündeln (to play with fire), zweifeln (to doubt).
4.2Verbs with a stem in ending in -ern include:
A-E: altern (to grow old), sich anbiedern (to court someone's favour), ändern
(to change), ankern (to anchor), ärgern (to irritate), aufheitern (to brighten up),
aufmuntern (to cheer up), äußern (to express), aussondern (to single out),
auswandern (to emigrate), behindern (to impede), bemuttern (to mother),
bereichern (to enrich), beteuern (to declare), bevölkern (to populate),
bewundern (to admire), beziffern (to number; to estimate), blättern (to leaf
through), chartern (to charter), dämmern (to dawn), dauern (to last, to endure),
donnern (to thunder), durchstöbern (to rummage through), einbürgern (to
naturalize), eitern (to fester), entziffern (to decipher), erinnern (to remind), sich
erinnern (to remember), erlätern (to explain), erleichtern (to make easier),
erneuern (to renew), erobern (to conquer), erörtern (to discuss), erschüttern (to
shake severely), erweitern (to expand), erwidern (to respond)
F-M: feiern (to celebrate), feuern (to sack, to fire), filtern (to filter), flüstern (to
whisper), folgern (to conclude), foltern (to torture), fordern (to demand),
fördern (to support, to promote), füttern (to feed), gliedern (to structure),
hämmern (to hammer), hamstern (to hoard; to forage), hapern (to be lacking),
hindern (to impede), hungern (to starve), jammern (to whine, to yammer),
kauern (to crouch; to cower), kentern (to capsize), kichern (to giggle),
klammern (to peg, to staple), klappern (to clatter), klettern (to climb),
knabbern (to nibble), knistern (to rustle), knittern (to crease), ködern (to lure;
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to entice), kontern (to counter), sich kümmern (to look after; to worry), lagern
(to store), lästern (to be cruel about someone), lauern (to lurk, to lie in wait),
liefern (to deliver), lindern (to alleviate), lockern (to loosen), martern (to
torment), meckern (to grouse; to moan), meistern (to overcome), mildern (to
alleviate),
mindern
(to
diminish),
mustern
(to
scrutinize)
N-S: opfern (to sacrifice), pflastern (to surface; to cobble), pilgern (to make a
pilgrimage), plappern (to prattle), plaudern (to chat, to talk), plündern (to
plunder), polstern (to upholster), pudern (to powder), räuchern (to smoke), sich
räuspern (to clear one's throat), rudern (to row), säbern (to clean), scheitern (to
fail), schildern (to depict), schimmern (to shimmer), schlendern (to stroll, to
amble), schleudern (to hurl, to sling), schmälern (to diminish, to reduce),
schnuppern (to sniff, to snuffle), sichern (to secure), speichern (to store),
steigern (to increase), steuern (to navigate), stolpern (to stumble), stottern (to
stutter)
T-Z: trauern (to mourn), untermauern (to underpin), verallgemeinern (to
generalize), verändern (to change), verbessern (to improve), vergewissern (to
make sure), vergrößern (to enlarge), verhindern (to prevent), verkleinern (to
make smallert), verkörpern (to embody), verlängern (to extend), verringern (to
reduce), verschlechtern (to make worse), verschleiern (to veil), verschlimmern
(to make worse), versichern (to assure), versteigern (to auction), verweigern (to
refuse), wandern (to wander), sich weigern (to refuse), wetteifern (to compete),
wuchern (to proliferate), wundern (to surprise), zaubern (to do magic), zaudern
(to hesitate), zertrümmern (to smash; to wreck), zittern (to tremble), zögern (to
hesitate), zwinkern (to blink; to twinkle).
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CHAPTER 40
STORNG OR IRREGULAR
VERBS
Verbs are called irregular or 'strong' if they
are conjugated in ways that are different from the
normal patterns. Verbs that adhere to these
patterns are called regular or 'weak'. These
divergences from the standard conjugation
patterns include:




vowel changes in the stem of the verb
addition of umlauts in the stem of the verb
consonant changes in the stem of the verb
endings that are different to the standard
pattern
There is no way of telling from the infinitive of a
verb whether it is weak or strong. Their
irregularities need to be learned verb by verb,
and it is for this reason that I have supplied the
conjugation of the main German strong verbs.
We can say however that the majority of these
strong verbs are consistent in that it is only their
second and third person singular forms (i.e. the
"du" and "er/sie/es" forms) that display
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irregularities in the present tense. The other
forms of the verb have the stem and endings that
we would expect to find.
1. A few patterns can be observed with the
irregular forms of the second and third person
singular
in
the
present
tense.
Some strong verbs with a stem vowel -echange this vowel to -i- in the "du" and
"er/sie/es" forms.
"geben"xscsu= to give
Singular
I give
ich gebexscsu
You give
du gibstxhCLV
(informal/formal)
Sie gebenxscsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
gives
gibtxhCV
Plural
We give
wir gebenxscsu
You give
ihr gebtxsCV
(informal/formal)
Sie gebenxscsu
They give
sie gebenxscsu
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One more example of this pattern"essen",lsu = to eat
Singular
I eat
ich esse,ls
You eat
du isstbLV
(informal/formal)
Sie essen,lsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
eats
isstbLV
Plural
We eat
wir essen,lsu
You eat
ihr esst,LV
(informal/formal)
Sie essen,lsu
They eat
sie essen,lsu
1.1 Verbs that behave this way in the present
tense include: bergen (to rescue), bersten (to burst), brechen (to
break), dreschen (to thresh), erschrecken (to be startled), essen (to eat),
fechten (to fence), flechten (to plait), fressen (to eat (of animals)), geben
(to give), gelten (to be valid), helfen (to help), messen (to measure),
nehmen (to take), quellen (to gush), schelten (to scold), schmelzen (to
melt), schwellen (to swell), sprechen (to speak), stechen (to sting),
sterben (to die), treffen (to meet), treten (to step; to kick), verbergen (to
hide), verderben (to spoil), vergessen (to forget), werben (to recruit; to
advertise), werfen (to throw).
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1.2 Note in particular the present tense of the
verbs in the previous group whose infinitive
has a stem in -t- (bersten, fechten, flechten, gelten,
treten)
"gelten"=to be valid
Singular
I am valid
ich geltexsYVs
You are valid
du giltstfxYLV
(informal/formal)
Sie geltenxsYVsu
He/she/it is
er/sie/es
valid
giltfxYV
Plural
wir geltenxsYVsu We are valid
You are valid
ihr geltetxsYVsV
(informal/formal)
Sie geltenxsYVsu
They are valid
sie geltenxsYVsu
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1.3Within this sub-group, the verb "treten" (to
step, to tread; to kick) not only changes its stem
vowel from -e- to -i-, but also doubles the medial
-t- in the "du" and "er/sie/es" forms.
"treten"VªsVsu = to step
Singular
I step
ich treteVªsVs
You step
du trittstVªhV~LV
(informal/formal)
Sie tretenVªsVsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
steps
trittVªhV
Plural
We step
wir tretenVªsVsu
You step
ihr tretetVªsVsV
(informal/formal)
Sie tretenVªsVsu
They step
sie tretenVªsVsu
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2. Some strong verbs with a stem vowel -echange this vowel to -ie- in the second and
third persons singular.
"sehen"
Singular
ich sehe ts+gs
du siehst t+hLV
Sie sehen ts+gsu
er/sie/es
sieht thV
Plural
wir sehen ts+gsu
ihr seht t+sV
Sie sehen ts+gsu
sie sehen ts+gsu
I see
You see
(informal/formal)
He/she/it
sees
We see
You see
(informal/formal)
They see
2.1 Verbs that behave this way in the present
tense include: befehlen (to order; to command), empfehlen (to
recommend), geschehen (to happen), lesen (to read), sehen (to see), stehlen (to
steal).
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Let us see one more example of
this formation
"stehlen"
Singular
ich stehle LVsgys
du stiehlst LVhYLV
Sie stehlen LVsgysu
er/sie/es
stiehlt LVhYV
Plural
wir stehlen LVsgysu
ihr stehlt LVsYV
Sie stehlen LVsgysu
sie stehlen LVsgysu
110
I steal
You steal
(informal/formal)
He/she/it
steals
We steal
You steal
(informal/formal)
They steal
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3. Some strong verbs with a stem vowel -achange this vowel to -ä- in the second and
third persons singular
"fahren"
Singular
ich fahre Q+kgjs
du fährst Q+sgLVZ
Sie fahren Q+kgjsu
er/sie/es
fährt Q+sgVZ
Plural
wir fahren Q+kgjsu
ihr fahrt Q+kgVZ
Sie fahren Q+kgjsu
sie fahren Q+kgjsu
I drive
You drive
(informal/formal)
He/she/it
drives
We drive
You drive
(informal/formal)
They drive
3.1Verbs that behave this way in the present tense include: anfangen (to begin),
backen (to bake), blasen (to blow), braten (to roast), einladen (to drive; to go),
fahren (to drive; to go), fallen (to fall), fangen (to catch), gefallen (to please),
graben (to dig), halten (to hold; to stop), laden (to load), lassen (to let), raten (to
advise), schlafen (to sleep), schlagen (to beat), tragen (to carry; to wear),
wachsen (to grow), waschen (to wash).
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Note in particular the present tense of the
following strong verbs whose infinitive has a
stem in -ad- (einladen, laden) and -at- (braten,
halten, raten):
"einladen"= to invite
Singular
I invite
ich
lade ein ykMs vkbu
You invite
du
lädst ein ysM~LV vkbu (informal/formal)
Sie
laden einykMsu vkbu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
lädt ein ysM~V vkbu invites
Plural
We invite
wir
laden ein ykMs vkbu
You invite
ihr
ladet ein ykMsV vkbu (informal/formal)
Sie
laden einykMsu vkbu
They invite
sie
laden einykMsu vkbu
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Let us see one more example
of this formation
"halten"gkYVsu= to hold /to stop
Singular
I hold
ich halte gkYVs
You hold
du hältst gsYV~LV
(informal/formal)
Sie halten gkYVsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es hält gsYV
holds
Plural
We hold
wir halten gkYVsu
You hold
ihr haltet gkYVsV
(informal/formal)
Sie halten gkYVsu
They hold
sie halten gkYVsu
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CHAPTER 41
FEW EXCEPTIONAL
STRONG VERBS
The verb "tun"
The verb "tun", whose infinitive ends in -n, takes
the following endings in the present tense:
"tun"= to do
Singular
ich tue Vw, I do
du tustVwLV You do
Sie tun Vwu (informal/formal)
He/she/it does
er/sie/es
tutVwV
Plural
wir tunVwu We do
ihr tutVwV You do
Sie tunVwu (informal/formal)
sie tunVwu They do
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Various stem vowel changes
Some strong verbs alter the stem vowel of
their infinitives in the present tense in
following ways:
1) erlöschen (to go out (of lights)): ich erlösche,
du erlischst, er/sie/es erlischt, wir erlöschen,
ihr erlöscht, sie erlöschen
2) gebären (to give birth): ich gebäre, du
gebierst, er/sie/es gebiert, wir gebären, ihr
gebärt, sie gebären
3) laufen (to run): ich laufe, du läufst, er/sie/es
läuft, wir laufen, ihr lauft, sie laufen
4) saufen (to drink (alcohol)): ich saufe, du
säufst, er/sie/es säuft, wir saufen, ihr sauft, sie
saufen
5) stoßen (to run): ich stoße, du stößt, er/sie/es
stößt, wir stoßen, ihr stoßt, sie stoßen
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CHAPTER42
THE MODAL VERBS
The German modal verbs are a group of six
verbs which affect the mood of a sentence,
approximating to words like may,can,must/to
have to,to like,should and to want in English.In
the present tense, the modal verbs:



have a zero ending on the "er/sie/es" form of
the verb, i.e. there is no final -t
have a zero ending on the "ich" form of the
verb, i.e. there is no final -e
apply any change to the stem vowel to the
"ich" form of the verb, as well as to the "du"
and "er/sie/es" forms. (N.B. The modal verb
"sollen" does not modify its stem vowel at
all.)
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"dürfen"=may/to be allowed to
Singular
I may
ich darfMkQZ+Z
du darfstMkQZ+Z~LV You may
Sie dürfenM~;wQ+Zsu (informal/formal)
He/she/it may
er/sie/es
darfMkQZZ+
Plural
We may
wir
dürfenM~;wQ+Zsu
You may
ihr dürftM~;w¶V+ Z
(informal/formal)
Sie
dürfenM~;wQ+Zsu
They may
sie
dürfenM~;wQ+Zsu
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"können"D;ksusu= can
Singular
ich kanndku
du kannstdkULV
Sie können D;ksusu
er/sie/es
kanndku
Plural
wir können D;ksusu
ihr könntD;ksUV
Sie können D;ksusu
sie können D;ksusu
118
I can
You can
(informal/formal)
He/she/it
can
We can
You can
(informal/formal)
They can
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"mögen"E;ksxsu= to like
Singula
ich mag Ekkx
du magstekXLV
Sie mögen E;ksxsu
er/sie/es magekx
I like
You like
(informal/formal)
He/she/it likes
Plural
wir mögen E;ksxsu
ihr mögtE;ksXV
Sie mögen E;ksxsu
sie mögen E;ksxsu
We like
You like
(informal/formal)
They like
A related form(much in used)Ich möchteE;ks‛Vs
I would like to
Du möchtestE;ks‛VsLV You would like to
Er/sie/es möchteE;ks‛VsHe/she/it would like to
Wir möchtenE;ks‛Vsu We would like to
Ihr möchtetE;ks‛VsV you would like to
Sie möchtenE;ks‛Vsu You would like to
sie möchtenE;ks‛Vsu They would like to
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"müssen"E;wlsu= must/to have to/
will have to
Singular
I must
ich mussewl
You must
du musstewLV
(informal/formal)
Sie müssenE;wlsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
must
mussewl
Plural
We must
wir müssenE;wlsu
You must
ihr müsstE;wLV
(informal/formal)
Sie müssenE;wlsu
They must
sie müssenE;wlsu
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"sollen"t+ksysu= should/
to be meant to
Singular
I should
ich sollt+ksys
You
du sollstt+ksYLV
should
Sie sollent+ksysu
(informal/formal)
er/sie/es
sollt+ksy
Plural
wir sollent+ksysu
ihr solltt+ksYV
Sie sollent+ksysu
He/she/it
should
We should
You
should
(informal/formal)
sie sollent+ksysu
They
should
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"wollen"oksysu= to want
Singular
I want
ich willfoy
You want
du willstfoYLV
(informal/formal)
Sie wollenoksysu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
wants
willfoy
Plural
We want
wir wollenoksysu
You want
ihr wolltoksYV
(informal/formal)
Sie wollenoksysu
They want
sie wollenoksysu
N.B.This pattern of present tense formation also
applies to the German verb "wissen" (to
know)[which is not a modal verb]. It also:



has a zero ending on the "er/sie/es" form of
the verb, i.e. there is no final -t
has a zero ending on the "ich" form of the
verb, i.e. there is no final -e
applies the change to the stem vowel to the
"ich" form of the verb, as well as to the "du"
and "er/sie/es" forms.
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"wissen"folsu=to know
Singular
I know
ich weißokbl
You know
du weißtokbLV
(informal/formal)
Sie wissen folsu
He/she/it
er/sie/es
knows
weißokbl
Plural
We know
wir wissen folsu
You know
ihr wisstfoLV
(informal/formal)
Sie wissen folsu
They know
sie wissen folsu
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CHAPTER 43
THE IMPERATIVES
In the imperative sentences, which are the
sentences of order,instruction, request or prayer,
we place the verb first which is followed by the
personal pronoun.
An exclamation mark is put after these
sentences. We will see the following examples:
Forms of the imperative
kaufendkmQ+su
wartenokVZsu
to buy
to wait
du kauf(e)! dkmQ
warte! okVZas
wait
Buy!+
ihr kauft! dkm¶V
wartet! okVZsV
Buy!
Wait!
Wir Kaufen wir!
Warten wir!
dkmQ+su ohj!
okVZsu ohj!
Let us buy!
Let us wait!
warten Sie!
Sie kaufen Sie!
dkmQ+su t+h
okVZsu t+h
buy!
buy!
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Formation
of
the
imperative
1. The "du" form of the imperative is formed by
dropping the final "-en" of the infinitive and
adding "-e" to the end of the word. This "-e"
ending is usually dropped in spoken German and
quite often in written German as well.
2. The "-e" ending on the "du" imperative is
always kept with verbs whose stem end in "-d",
"-t", "-ig" and "-m" or "-n" after another
consonant. See for example the verb "warten" (=
to
wait)
in
the
table
above.
3. Verbs whose infinitive ends in "-eln" drop the
"-e" of the stem in the "du" imperative but not in
the "ihr" and "Sie" forms. See the verb "handeln"
(=
to
act)
in
the
table
above.
4. The "ihr" form of the imperative is exactly the
same as the "ihr" form of the regular present
tense.
5. The "Sie" form of the imperative is exactly the
same as the "Sie" form of the regular present
tense BUT the word order is reversed - the verb
always
precedes
the
pronoun.
6. Note in particular that the "Sie" form of the
imperative is the only one in which the pronoun
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is used in the command; you must omit the
pronoun in the "du" and "ihr" forms.
The "du" imperative of certain irregular
verbs
As we have seen when looking at the present
tense, there are a number of irregular or 'strong'
verbs with a stem vowel in "-e-" in the stem
change this to "-i-" or "-ie-" in the "du" form on
the present tense. These strong verbs also retain
this vowel change in the "du" imperative. Such
verbs never add the ending "-e" in the "du" form.
The "ihr" and "Sie" forms remain unaffected by
this vowel change.
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Irregular imperatives
geben xscsu
nehmen usesu
du gib! fxc
ihr gebt! fxCV
Sie geben Sie!
xscsu t+h
nimm! fue
nehmt! usEV
nehmen Sie!
usesu t+h
Empfehlen,EQ+sysu
du empfiehl! ,EQ+hy
ihr empfehlt! ,EQ+sYV
Sie empfehlen Sie!
,EQ+sysu t+h
Lesenyst+su
lies! yht+
lest! ysLV
lesen Sie!
yst+su t+h
Note however that this vowel change in the "du"
imperative is only true for those verbs with a
stem vowel in "-e-" that changes to "-i-" or "-ie-".
Verbs that make other vowel changes in the "du"
form of the present tense do not retain this vowel
change in the imperative. For example:
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



The verb "fahren" has the "du" imperative
fahr! (and not: fähr), although the present
tense of the verb is du fährst.
The verb "tragen" has the "du" imperative
trag! (and not: träg), although the present
tense of the verb is du trägst.
The verb "laufen" has the "du" imperative
lauf! (and not: läuf), although the present
tense of the verb is du läufst.
The verb "stoßen" has the imperative stoß!
(and not: stöß), although the present tense of
the verb is du stößt
The
"wir"
imperative
There is also a "wir" form of the imperative
which equates to "Let's do something" rather than
being an order. Just like the "Sie" form of the
imperative, you merely take the normal "wir"
form of the present tense verb and follow it with
the pronoun, which cannot be omitted. Any
separable prefix will come at the end of the
clause.



"Gehen wir!" xsgsu oh;j(= "Let's go!")
"Spielen wir!" ‘ihysu oh;j(= "Let's play!")
"Lesen wir!" yst+su fo;j(= "Let's read!")
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
"Fangen wir jetzt an! Q+kaxsu fo;j ;sV~l vku"
(= "Let's start now!")
The
imperative
forms
of
"sein"
The verb "to be" shows irregularity in the
imperative in that all of its forms use "sei-" as a
stem. This means that the "wir" and "Sie" forms
of the imperative are different from the present
tense forms of the verb.




"Sei glücklich!" t+kbZ XY;wdfy’k (= "Be
happy!")
"Seien wir optimistisch!" t+kb;su fo;j
vksIVhfef’V’k(= "Let's be optimistic!")
"Seid pünktlich!" t+kbM I;wUDVfy’k(= "Be
punctual!")
"Seien Sie glücklich!" t+kb;su t+h XY;wdfy’k(=
"Be happy!")
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CHAPTER 44
THE SEPERABLE VERBS
Separable verbs are formed by adding a
prefix to a main verb. By doing so, a new form of
the verb is created with a distinctive meaning can
be separated into two parts.
Components of a separable verb
= Sep. Verb
Prefix + Verb
+ Fahren
= Abfahren
abvc
Q+kgjsu
vcQkjsu
(from)
(to travel)
(to depart)
+ Kommen
= Ankommen
anvu
dkWesu
vudkWesu
(at)
(to come)
(to arrive)
= aussteigen
ausvkml + Steigen
‘Vkbxsu
vkml’Vkbxsu(to
(out of)
(to climb)
get out)
einvkbu + Steigen’Vkbxsu = Einsteigen
vkbu’Vkbxsu
(in)
(to climb)
(to get in)
umme
+ Steigen’Vkbxsu = umsteigen
me’Vkbxsu(to
(to climb)
change)
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Which
prefixes
are
separable?
The following common prefixes are always
separable when attached to a main verb. They
usually have a specific meaning in their own
right that either modify or completely change the
meanings of the root verbs:
Separable prefixes
ab- vc
an- vu
("away")
("starting")
aus- vkml
bei- ckbZ
("out")
("joining")
entgegenein- vkbu
,UVxsxsu"towards"
("in")
her- gsj
("towards")
nach- uk[k
("after")
vorbeiQkWjckbZ
("past")
zurückRlw:d"back"
los- ykWl
("starting")
nieder-uhMj
("down")
weg- osx
("away")
zusammen- Rlwtk+ esu
("together")
131
auf- vkmQ+
("up")
da(r)- Mkj
hin- fgu
("away")
mit- feV
("with")
vor- Q+kWj
("ahead")
zu- Rlw
("on")
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The following prefixes are separable when they
precede certain verbs and inseparable when they
precede others:
Occasionally separable prefixes
überdurch- M~;w’kZ hinterb;wcj
("through") fgUVj
("behind") ("over")
unterwiederum- me
ohMj
("change") mUVj
("under")
("again")
Present tense of a separable verb
Separable verbs are so called because the prefix
is separated from the root verb in main clauses
and placed at the end of the clause. When this
happens, the prefix never alters in form. Instead,
the verb itself takes exactly the same endings,
whether regular ('weak') or irregular ('strong') as
the root verb from which it is derived.
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Present tense of "einsteigen"=to climb in
Singular
I climb in
ich steige ein
’Vkbxs vkbu
You climb in
du steigst ein
’VkbX‛V vkbu
(informal/formal)
Sie steigen ein
’Vkbxsu vkbu
He/she/it climbs in
er/sie/es steigt ein
’VkbXV vkbu
Plural
We climb in
wir steigen ein
’Vkbxsu vkbu
You climb in
ihr steigt ein
’VkbXV vkbu
(informal/formal)
Sie steigen ein
’Vkbxsu vkbu
They climb in
sie steigen ein
’Vkbxsu vkbu
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Present tense of "anfangen"= to begin
Singular
I begin
ich fange anQ+kaxs vu
You begin
du fängst anQ+saXLV vu
(informal/formal)
Sie fangen anQ+kaxsu vu
er/sie/es fängt anQ+saXV vu
Plural
wir fangen anQ+kaxs vu
ihr fangt anQ+kaxsu vu
Sie fangen anQ+kaxs vu
sie fangen anQ+kaxsu vu
He/she/it begins
We begin
You begin
(informal/formal)
They begin
Word order in the present tense
The separable prefix stands in the final position
in a clause. It is thus separated from the
conjugated form of its verb in a main clause,
including questions. Look at the following
examples:
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Separable verbs in a normal clause
Verb
Clause
Aussteigen
Er steigt in München aus.
vkmLVkbxsu
("He gets out in Munich.")
Einsteigen
Bitte steigen Sie ein!
vkbuLVkbxsu
("Please get in!")
Umsteigen
Sie steigen hier um.
mELVkbxsu
("You change here.")
abfahren vcQ+kgjsu Wann fährst du ab?
("When do you depart?")
ankommen
Wann kommt der Zug an?
vudkWesu
("When does the train
arrive?")
But in a subordinate clause, the finite verb
rejoins the prefix in final position and is written
together with as one word. Remember that the
separable prefix is always stressed in these
contexts:

Wer weiß, ob er in München aussteigt?
(Who knows if he's getting off the train in
Munich?)
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

Sie glauben, dass das Konzert um neunzehn
Uhr dreißig anfängt.
(They think that the concert starts at
7.30pm.)
Wir sehen uns den Film an, obwohl wir
wohl erst um neun Uhr ankommen.
(We'll watch the film although we'll
probably only arrive at nine o'clock.)
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CHAPTER 46
PERFEKT
This tense is equivalent to Present perfect,
present perfect continuous and past indefinite
tenses in English. It denotes the sentences like:
I have spoken. Or
I have been speaking.Or
I spoke.
A. Most of the verbs are conjugated with the
verb ‗haben‘ = to have, quite like english.
The grammatical equation is
Sub.+ form of haben + past participle of verb
Here are few examples of this formationbeginnen (= to begin, to start)[I have started, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe begonnen, du hast
begonnen, er/sie hat begonnen, wir haben
begonnen, ihr habt begonnen, sie/Sie haben
begonnen
Past Participle: begonnencsxksusu
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bekommen (= to get; to receive)[I have got,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe bekommen, du hast
bekommen, er/sie hat bekommen, wir haben
bekommen, ihr habt bekommen, sie/Sie haben
bekommen
Past Participle: bekommencsdkWesu
essen (= to eat)[I have eaten ,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gegessen, du hast
gegessen, er/sie hat gegessen, wir haben
gegessen, ihr habt gegessen, sie/Sie haben
gegessen
Past Participle: gegessenxsxslsu
geben (= to give)[I have given, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gegeben, du hast
gegeben, er/sie hat gegeben, wir haben gegeben,
ihr habt gegeben, sie/Sie haben gegeben
Past Participle: gegebenxsxscsu
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heißen (= to be called)[ I have been called,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe geheißen, du hast
geheißen, er/sie hat geheißen, wir haben
geheißen, ihr habt geheißen, sie/Sie haben
geheißen
Past Participle: gehießenxsgkblsu
helfen (= to help)[ I have helped, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe geholfen, du hast
geholfen, er/sie hat geholfen, wir haben geholfen,
ihr habt geholfen, sie/Sie haben geholfen
Past Participle: geholfenxsgksYQ+su
lassen (= to let, to allow)[I have let,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gelassen, du hast
gelassen, er/sie hat gelassen, wir haben gelassen,
ihr habt gelassen, sie/Sie haben gelassen
Past Participle: gelassenxsyklsu
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nehmen (= to take)[I have taken,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe genommen, du hast
genommen, er/sie hat genommen, wir haben
genommen, ihr habt genommen, sie/Sie haben
genommen
Past Participle: genommenxsukWesu
sehen (= to see)[I have seen,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe geehen, du hast gesehen,
er/sie hat gesehen, wir haben gesehen, ihr habt
gesehen, sie/Sie haben gesehen
Past Participle: gesehenxst+sgsu
sprechen (= to speak; to say)[I have spoken, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gesprochen, du hast
gesprochen, er/sie hat gesprochen, wir haben
gesprochen, ihr habt gesprochen, sie/Sie haben
gesprochen
Past Participle: gesprochenxs’izks’ksu
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trinken (= to drink)[I have drunk,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe getrunken, du hast
getrunken, er/sie hat getrunken, wir haben
getrunken, ihr habt getrunken, sie/Sie haben
getrunken
Past Participle: getrunkenxsVªwadsu
verstehen (to understand)[I have understood,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe verstanden, du hast
verstanden, er/sie hat verstanden, wir haben
verstanden, ihr habt verstanden, sie/Sie haben
verstanden
Past Participle: verstandenQ+sj’Vk.Msu
waschen (= to wash)[I have washed,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gewaschen, du hast
gewaschen, er/sie hat gewaschen, wir haben
gewaschen, ihr habt gewaschen, sie/Sie haben
gewaschen
Past Participle: gewaschenxsok’ksu
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B.Exceptionally, few verbs which are not
conjugated with ‘haben’
but
THE VERBS WHICH SHOWS THE
MOVEMENT, THEY ARE CONJUGATED
WITH ‘SEIN’.
The grammatical equation is
Sub.+ form of ‘sein’ + past participle of verb
The examples of few exceptional verbs which
are conjugated with ‘sein’ [and not with
haben]ankommenvUdkWesu= to arrive
fahrenQ+kgjsu= to drive
kommendkWesu= to come
gehenxsgsu= to go
etc.
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ankommen (= to arrive)[I have arrived, etc.]
Perfect tense:
ich bin angekommenfcu vaxsdkWesu I have arrived
du bist angekommenfc’V vaxsdkWesuyou‘ve arrived
er/sie ist angekommenbLV vaxd
s kWesuhe has arrived
wir sind angekommenft+aM vaxd
s kWesuwe‘ve arrived
ihr seid angekomment+kbM vaxsdkWesuyou‘ve arrived
sie/Sie sind angekommenft+aM vaxsdkWesuthey/you
have arrived
Past Participle: angekommenvaxsdkWesu
fahren (= to go (by motorised transport); to drive;
to travel)[I have driven, etc.]
Perfect tense (sein): ich bin gefahren, du bist
gefahren, er/sie ist gefahren, wir sind gefahren,
ihr seid gefahren, sie/Sie sind gefahren
Past Participle: gefahrenxsQ+kjsu
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gehen (= to go)[I have gone,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich bin gegangen, du bist
gegangen, er/sie ist gegangen, wir sind gegangen,
ihr seid gegangen, sie/Sie sind gegangen
Past Participle: gegangenxsxkaxsu
kommen (= to come)[I have come,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich bin gekommen, du bist
gekommen, er/sie ist gekommen, wir sind
gekommen, ihr seid gekommen, sie/Sie sind
gekommen
Past Participle: gekommenxsdkWesu
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C.PERFEKT TENSE OF AUXILIARY
VERBSsein (= to be)[I have been,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich bin gewesen, du bist gewesen,
er/sie ist gewesen, wir sind geschrocken, ihr seid
gewesen, sie/Sie seid gewesen
Past Participle: gewesenxsoslsu
haben (= to have)[I have had, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gehabt, du hast gehabt,
er/sie hat gehabt, wir haben gehabt, ihr habt
gehabt, sie/Sie haben gehabt
Past participle: gehabtxsgkCV
werden (= to become)[I have become,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich bin geworden, du bist
geworden, er/sie ist geworden, wir sind
geworden, ihr seid geworden, sie/Sie sind
geworden
Past Participle: gewordenxsoksMsZu
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D. Perfekt tense of Modal verbsdürfen (=may/ to be allowed to)[I may have/I might, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gedurft, du hast gedurft,
er/sie hat gedurft, wir haben gedurft, ihr habt
gedurft, sie/Sie haben gedurft
Perfect tense (when used with another verb):
ich habe spielen dürfen, du hast spielen dürfen,
er/sie hat spielen dürfen, wir haben spielen
dürfen, ihr habt spielen dürfen, sie/Sie haben
spielen dürfen
Past Participle: gedurftxsM~;w¶V+ Z
können (can/to be able to)[I could,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gekonnt, du hast
gekonnt, er/sie hat gekonnt, wir haben gekonnt,
ihr habt gekonnt, sie/Sie haben gekonnt
Perfect tense (when used with another verb):
ich habe spielen können, du hast spielen können,
er/sie hat spielen können, wir haben spielen
können, ihr habt spielen können, sie/Sie haben
spielen können
Past Participle: gekonntxsdkWUV
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mögen (= to like)[I liked, etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gemocht, du hast
gemocht, er/sie hat gemocht, wir haben gemocht,
ihr habt gemocht, sie/Sie haben gemocht
Perfect tense (when used with another verb):
ich habe spielen mögen, du hast spielen mögen,
er/sie hat spielen mögen, wir haben spielen
mögen, ihr habt spielen mögen, sie/Sie haben
spielen mögen
Past Participle: gemochtxseks‛V
müssen (to have to, must)[I must have/I had to,etc
Perfect tense: ich habe gemusst, du hast gemusst,
er/sie hat gemusst, wir haben gemusst, ihr habt
gemusst, sie/Sie haben gemusst
Perfect tense (when used with another verb):
ich habe spielen müssen, du hast spielen müssen,
er/sie hat spielen müssen, wir haben spielen
müssen, ihr habt spielen müssen, sie/Sie haben
spielen müssen
Past Participle: gemusstxsewLV
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sollen (should/to be supposed to)[I should have,etc]
Perfect tense: ich habe gesollt, du hast gesollt,
er/sie hat gesollt, wir haben gesollt, ihr habt
gesollt, sie/Sie haben gesollt
Perfect tense (when used with another verb):
ich habe spielen sollen, du hast spielen sollen,
er/sie hat spielen sollen, wir haben spielen sollen,
ihr habt spielen sollen, sie/Sie haben spielen
sollen
Past Participle: gesolltxstk+ sYV
wollen (to want)[I wanted,etc.]
Perfect tense: ich habe gewollt, du hast gewollt,
er/sie hat gewollt, wir haben gewollt, ihr habt
gewollt, sie/Sie haben gewollt
Perfect tense (when used with another verb):
ich habe spielen wollen, du hast spielen wollen,
er/sie hat spielen wollen, wir haben spielen
wollen, ihr habt spielen wollen, sie/Sie haben
spielen wollen
Past Participle: gewolltxsoksYV
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CHAPTER 46
PRÄTARITUM
This tense is equivalent to Past continuous or
Imperfect tense in English and denotes the
sentences like:
I was speaking. Or
I used to speak.
Here are Few verbs in Prätaritum(Imperfect)
ankommen (= to arrive)[I was arriving,etc.]
ich kam an dke vu
du kamst an dkELV vu
er/sie kam an dke vu
wir kamen an dkesu vu
ihr kamt an dkEV vu
sie/Sie kamen an dkesu vu
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beginnen (= to begin, to start)[I was beginnig,etc.]
ich begann csxku
du begannst csxkULV
er/sie begann csxku
wir begannen csxkusu
ihr begannt csxkUV
sie/Sie begannen csxkusu
bekommencsdkWesu
( to get; to receive)[I was getting,etc.]
ich bekamcsdke
du bekamstcsdkELV
er/sie bekamcsdke
wir bekamencsdkesu
ihr bekamtcsdkEV
sie/Sie bekamencsdkesu
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Essen,lsu (= to eat)[I was eating,etc.]
ich aßvkl
du aßestvklsV
er/sie aßvkl
wir aßenvklsu
ihr aßtvkLV
sie/Sie aßenvklsu
fahren Q+kgjsu(= to go (by motorised transport); to
drive; to travel)[I was driving,etc.]
ich fuhr¶;wj
du fuhrst¶;wLVZ
er/sie fuhr¶;wj
wir fuhren¶;wjus
ihr fuhrt¶;wVZ
sie/Sie fuhren¶;wjsu
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gebenxscsu (= to give)[I was giving,etc.]
ich gabxkc, du gabstxkCLV, er/sie gabxkc, wir
gabenxkcsu, ihr gabtxkCV, sie/Sie gabenxkcsu
gehen xsgsu(= to go)[ I was going,etc.]
ich ging fxax, du gingst fxaXLV, er/sie ging fxax, wir
gingen fxaxsu, ihr gingt fxaXV, sie/Sie gingen fxaxsu
heißen gkblsu (= to be called)[I was being called..]
ich hieß ghl, du hieß(es)t ghLV, er/sie hieß ghl,
wir hießen ghlsu, ihr hießt ghLV, sie/Sie hießen
ghlsu
helfen gsYQs+u(= to help)[I was helping,etc.]
ich half gkYQ+, du halfst gkY¶+LV, er/sie half gkYQ+,
wir halfen gkYQ+su, ihr halft gkY¶V, sie/Sie halfen
gkYQ+su
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kommen dksesu(= to come)[I was coming,etc.]
ich kam dke, du kamst dkELV, er/sie kam dke, wir
kamen dkesu, ihr kamt dkEV, sie/Sie kamen dkesu
lassen yklsu(= to let, to allow)[I was letting,etc.]
ich ließ yhl, du ließ(es)t yhLV, er/sie ließ yhLV,
wir ließen yhlsu, ihr ließt yhLV, sie/Sie ließen
yhlsu
nehmen usesu(= to take)[I was taking,etc.]
ich nahm uke, du nahmst ukELV, er/sie nahm uke,
wir nahmen ukesu, ihr nahmt ukEV, sie/Sie nahmen
ukesu
sehen t+sgsu(= to see)[I was seeing,etc.]
ich sah t+kg , du sahst t+kLV er/sie sah t+kg, wir
sahen t+kgsu, ihr saht t+kV, sie/Sie sahen t+kgsu
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speien ‘ih;su (= to spit)[I was spitting,etc.]
ich spie ‘ih, du spiest ‘ihLV, er/sie spie ‘ih, wir
spie(e)n ‘ih;su, ihr spie(e)t ‘ih;sV, sie/Sie spie(e)n
‘ih;su
sprechen ‘izs‛ksu(= to speak; to say)
[I was speaking,etc.]
ich sprach‘izk‛k, du sprachst‘izk‛V, er/sie
sprach‘izk‛k, wir sprachen‘izs‛ksu, ihr spracht‘izkV,
sie/Sie sprachen‘izs‛ksu
Trinken fVªadsu (= to drink)[I was drinking,etc.]
ich trank Vªakd, du trankst VªakDLV, er/sie trank Vªakd,
wir tranken Vªakdsu, ihr trankt VªakDV, sie/Sie tranken
Vªakdsu
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verstehen Q+sj’Vsgsu (= to understand)
[I was understanding,etc.]
ich verstand Q+sj’Vk.M, du verstand(e)st Q+sj’Vk.Ms’V,
er/sie verstand Q+sj’Vk.M, wir verstanden Q+sj’Vk.Msu,
ihr verstandet Q+sj’Vk.MsV, sie/Sie verstanden
Q+sj’Vk.Msu
waschen ok’ksu (= to wash)[I was washing,etc.]
ich wusch O;w’k, du wuschst O;w’V, er/sie wusch
O;w’k, wir wuschen O;w’ksu, ihr wuscht O;w’V, sie/Sie
wuschen O;w’ksu
Auxiliary Verbs
sein t+kbu(= to be)[I was being,etc.]
ich war okj, du warst ok‛VZ, er/sie war okj, wir
waren okjsu, ihr wart okVZ, sie/Sie waren okjsu
haben gkcsu(= to have)[I was having,etc.]
ich hatte gkVs, du hattestgkVs‛V, er/sie hattegkVs, wir
hattengkVsu, ihr hattetgkVsV, sie/Sie hattengkVsu
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werden osMsZu(= to become)[I was becoming,etc.]
ich wurdeO;wMZs, du wurdestO;wMZsLV, er/sie wurdeO;wMZs,
wir wurdenO;wMZus , ihr wurdetO;wMZsV, sie/Sie
wurdenO;wMZsu
Modal Verbs
dürfen M~;wQ+sZu( to be allowed to)[I was allowing,..]
ich durfte M~;w¶Z+Vs, du durftest M~;w¶Z+Vs‛V, er/sie durfte
M~;w¶Z+Vs, wir durften M~;w¶Z+Vsu, ihr durftet M~;w¶Z+VsV,
sie/Sie durften M~;w¶Z+Vsu
wollenoksysu (= to want)[I was wanting,etc.]
ich wollteoksYVs, du wolltestoksYVsLV, er/sie
wollteoksYVs, wir wolltenoksYVsu, ihr wolltetoksYVsV,
sie/Sie wolltenoksYVsu
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CHAPTER 47
PLUPERFEKT
This tense is equivalent to the english past
perfect and past perfect continuous tenses and
denotes the sentences like
I had spoken. Or
I had been speaking.
The grammatical equation is
Subject + the prätaritum(imperfect) form of
haben + past participle of verb
THE REMINDER
The Imperfect Form of ‘Haben’
haben gkcsu(= to have)[I had,etc.]
ich hatte gkVs, du hattestgkVs‛V, er/sie hattegkVs, wir
hattengkVsu, ihr hattetgkVsV, sie/Sie hattengkVsu
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Here are Few Verbs in Pluperfect Tensebeginnen (= to begin, to start)[I had begun,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte begonnen, du hattest
begonnen, er/sie hatte begonnen, wir hatten
begonnen, ihr hattet begonnen, sie/Sie hatten
begonnen
Past Participle: begonnen
bekommen (= to get; to receive)[I had gotten,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte bekommen, du
hattest bekommen, er/sie hatte bekommen, wir
hatten bekommen, ihr hattet bekommen, sie/Sie
hatten bekommen
Past Participle: bekommen
essen (= to eat)[I had eaten,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gegessen, du hattest
gegessen, er/sie hatte gegessen, wir hatten
gegessen, ihr hattet gegessen, sie/Sie hatten
gegessen
Past Participle: gegessen
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geben (= to give)[I had given,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gegeben, du hattest
gegeben, er/sie hatte gegeben, wir hatten
gegeben, ihr hattet gegeben, sie/Sie hatten
gegeben
Past Participle: gegeben
heißen (= to be called)[I had been called,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte geheißen, du hattest
geheißen, er/sie hatte geheißen, wir hatten
geheißen, ihr hattet geheißen, sie/Sie hatten
geheißen
Past Participle: gehießen
helfen (= to help)[I had helped, etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte geholfen, du hattest
geholfen, er/sie hatte geholfen, wir hatten
geholfen, ihr hattet geholfen, sie/Sie hatten
geholfen
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lassen (= to let, to allow)[I had let,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gelassen, du hattest
gelassen, er/sie hatte gelassen, wir hatten
gelassen, ihr hattet gelassen, sie/Sie hatten
gelassen
Pluperfect tense (when used with another
verb): ich hatte fallen lassen, du hattest fallen
lassen, er/sie hatte fallen lassen, wir hatten fallen
lassen, ihr hattet fallen lassen, sie/Sie hatten
fallen lassen
Past Participle: gelassen
nehmen (= to take)[I had taken,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte genommen, du
hattest genommen, er/sie hatte genommen, wir
hatten genommen, ihr hattet genommen, sie/Sie
hatten genommen
Past Participle: genommen
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sehen (= to see)[I had seen,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gesehen, du hattest
gesehen, er/sie hatte gesehen, wir hatten gesehen,
ihr hattet gesehen, sie/Sie hatten gesehen
Past Participle: gesehen
sprechen (= to speak)[I had spoken,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gesprochen, du
hattest gesprochen, er/sie hatte gesprochen, wir
hatten gesprochen, ihr hattet gesprochen, sie/Sie
hatten gesprochen
Past Participle: gesprochen
trinken (= to drink)[I had drunk,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte getrunken, du hattest
getrunken, er/sie hatte getrunken, wir hatten
getrunken, ihr hattet getrunken, sie/Sie hatten
getrunken
Past Participle: getrunken
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verstehen (= to understand)[I had understood,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte verstanden, du hattest
verstanden, er/sie hatte verstanden, wir hatten
verstanden, ihr hattet verstanden, sie/Sie hatten
verstanden
Past Participle: verstanden
waschen (= to wash)[I had washed,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gewaschen, du hattest
gewaschen, er/sie hatte gewaschen, wir hatten
gewaschen, ihr hattet gewaschen, sie/Sie hatten
gewaschen
Past Participle: gewaschen
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And exceptionally few verbs which shows the
movement are conjugated with the prätaritum
or imperfect form of ‘sein’
THE REMINDER
The Prätaritum or imperfect form of ‘Sein’
sein t+kbu(= to be)
Imperfect / preterite: ich war okj, du warst ok‛VZ,
er/sie war okj, wir waren okjsu, ihr wart okVZ,
sie/Sie waren okjsu
e.g.
ankommen (= to arrive)[I had arrived,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich war angekommen, du
warst angekommen, er/sie war angekommen, wir
waren angekommen, ihr wart angekommen,
sie/Sie waren angekommen
Past Participle: angekommen
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fahren (= to go (by motorised transport); to drive;
to travel)[I had driven,etc.]
Pluperfect tense (sein): ich war gefahren, du
warst gefahren, er/sie war gefahren, wir waren
gefahren, ihr wart gefahren, sie/Sie waren
gefahren
Past Participle: gefahren
gehen (= to go)[I had gone,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich war gegangen, du warst
gegangen, er/sie war gegangen, wir waren
gegangen, ihr wart gegangen, sie/Sie waren
gegangen
Past Participle: gegangen
kommen (= to come)[I had come,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich war gekommen, du warst
gekommen, er/sie war gekommen, wir waren
gekommen, ihr wart gekommen, sie/Sie waren
gekommen
Past Participle: gekommen
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PLUPERFEKT OF AUXILIARY VERBSsein (= to be)[I had been,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich war gewesen, du warst
gewesen, er/sie war gewesen, wir waren
gewesen, ihr wart gewesen, sie/Sie waren
gewesen
Past Participle: gewesen
haben (= to have)[I had had,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gehabt, du hattest
gehabt, er/sie hatte gehabt, wir hatten gehabt, ihr
hattet gehabt, sie/Sie hatten gehabt
Past Participle: gehabt
werden (= to become)[I had become,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich war geworden, du warst
geworden, er/sie war geworden, wir waren
geworden, ihr war geworden, sie/Sie waren
geworden
Past Participle: geworden
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PLUPERFEKT TENSE OF MODAL
VERBSdürfen (= to be allowed to)[I might have,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gedurft, du hattest
gedurft, er/sie hatte gedurft, wir hatten gedurft,
ihr hattet gedurft, sie/Sie hatten gedurft
Pluperfect tense (when used with another
verb): ich hatte spielen dürfen, du hattest spielen
dürfen, er/sie hatte spielen dürfen, wir hatten
spielen dürfen, ihr hattet spielen dürfen, sie/Sie
hatten spielen dürfen
Past Participle: gedurft
können (= to be able to)[I could have,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gekonnt, du hattest
gekonnt, er/sie hatte gekonnt, wir hatten gekonnt,
ihr hattet gekonnt, sie/Sie hatten gekonnt
Pluperfect tense (when used with another
verb): ich hatte spielen können, du hattest
spielen können, er/sie hatte spielen können, wir
hatten spielen können, ihr hattet spielen können,
sie/Sie hatten spielen können
Past Participle: gekonnt
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wollen (= to want)[I had wanted,etc.]
Pluperfect tense: ich hatte gewollt, du hattest
gewollt, er/sie hatte gewollt, wir hatten gewollt,
ihr hattet gewollt, sie/Sie hatten gewollt
Pluperfect tense (when used with another
verb): ich hatte spielen wollen, du hattest spielen
wollen, er/sie hatte spielen wollen, wir hatten
spielen wollen, ihr hattet spielen wollen, sie/Sie
hatten spielen wollen
Past Participle: gewollt
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CHAPTER 48
FUTUR
This tense is equivalent to the future indefinite
and future continuous tenses in English and
denotes the sentences like ‗I will speak or I will
be speaking‘.This tense is formed by using the
present tense of the auxiliary verb "werden"
followed by the infinitive of the verb in question:
The grammatical equation isSub.+ present form of ‘werden’ + the verb
ich werde osMZs
THE REMINDER
The Present Form of
‘Werden’
du wirst foLVZ
Sie werden osMsZu
er/sie/es wird foMZ
wir werden osMZsu
ihr werdet osMZsV
Sie werden osMZsV
sie werden osMZsu
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"kaufen" (= to buy)
Singular
ich werde kaufenosMZs I will buy
dkmQ+su
du wirst kaufenfoLVZ You will buy
dkmQ+su
(informal/formal)
Sie werden kaufen
osMZsu dkmQ+su
He/she/it will buy
er/sie/es wird
kaufen foMZ dkmQ+su
Plural
wir werden kaufen We will buy
osMZsu dkmQ+su
ihr werdet kaufen You will buy
osMZsV dkmQ+su
(informal/formal)
Sie werden kaufen
osMZsu dkmQ+su
sie werden kaufen They will buy
osMZsu dkmQ+su
Notes on word order
1. The infinitive of the main verb in the future
tense should always be placed at the end of a
clause or sentence.
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

Aber sie wird nicht mehr hier sein.
(But she won't be here any more.)
Marlene wird Mitte Oktober ausziehen.
(Marlene will be moving out in the middle of
October.)
2. When a clause is "inverted" - i.e. in a question
or when an adverb is the first element -, the
auxiliary verb "werden" precedes the subject and
the infinitive is again placed at the end of the
clause.



Wann wirst du einziehen?
(When will you move in?)
Natürlich wird Marlene den Wecker und
den Computer mitnehmen.
(Of course Marlene will take the alarm
clock and the computer with her.)
Ab dem kommenden Semester werde ich
hier Jura studieren.
(From this term onwards shall I be studying
law here.)
3. It is not necessary to repeat the auxiliary verb
"werden" when the same noun is the subject of
two or more future verbs in the same sentence.
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
Sie wird heiraten und dann in ein
Zweifamilienhaus umziehen.
(She will get married and will then move
into a semi-detached house.)
The future tense and the present tense
In practice, the future tense is used much less
frequently in German than it is in English. As we
have seen in previous chapters, the present tense
is often used indicate a future action, especially
when an adverb already shows that the event
takes place in the future:





Wir kommen morgen.
(We will be coming tomorrow.)
Übermorgen fährt er nach Hause.
(He'll be going home the day after
tomorrow.)
Ich bin gleich fertig.
(I'll be ready in a moment.)
Ich gehe in die Küche und mache Kaffee.
(I'll just go into the kitchen and make some
coffee.)
Heute Abend schreibe ich den Brief.
(I'll write the letter this evening.)
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The future tense is mainly used to refer to the
future if the present tense could be
misunderstood.


Ich werde keine Antwort bekommen.
("I won't get an answer". The present tense
might imply that you "aren't getting an
answer".)
Kai wird wieder bei der Post arbeiten.
("Kai will be working for the post office".
Using the present tense would imply that Kai
"is working for the post office again".)
The future tense can also indicate probability:

Ich bekomme keine Antwort. Sie wird wohl
nicht da sein.
(I'm not getting a reply. She's probably not
in.)
Modal verbs and the future tense
Take care to distinguish between "werden" and
"wollen" when expressing the future tense English "will" is not the same as German "will"!
Whereas the auxiliary verb "werden" should be
used to translate a future action, "wollen" should
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only be used to translate what a person "plans" or
"intends" to do.



Wir werden jetzt nach Italien fahren.
(We are going to go to Italy now.)
Wir wollen jetzt nach Italien fahren.
(We intend to go to Italy now.)
Wir möchten jetzt nach Italien fahren.
(We would like to go to Italy now.)
In first person plural questions "wollen" has the
sense of English "Shall we...?":


Wollen wir eine Tasse Kaffee trinken?
(Shall we have a cup of coffee?)
Was wollen wir heute machen?
(What shall we do today?)
Distinguishing between different forms of
"werden"
As we have seen in the previous chapter, the
auxiliary verb "werden" can be used to indicate a
number of different tenses and moods in
German. You should take care to distinguish
between the future (= werden + Infinitive) and
the passive (werden + Past Participle).
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

Wird Lutz die Wohnung sanieren?
(Will Lutz renovate the flat?)
Die Wohnung wird schon saniert!
(The flat is already being renovated.)
Note too that when "werden" is used with an
adjective it means "to become":

Wir werden ausziehen und unsere Wohnung
wird bald frei.
(We will move out and our flat will soon
become free.)
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CHAPTER 49
FUTUR PERFEKT
This tense is equivalent to English future
perfect and future perfect continuous tenses and
denotes the sentences like:
I will have talked. Or
I will have been talking.
To express them in German we use this equation
Sub. + form of werden + past participle of
verb + haben
Here are few examples of this tense1.I will have talked.or
I will have been talking.
Here subject is I = Ich
Form of warden according to Ich = werde
Verb = reden = talk
Past participle of the verb = geredet
Hence the sentence,
Ich werde geredet haben.
2.I will have bought./I will have been buying.
Ich werde gekauft haben.
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CHAPTER 50
THE CASES
AN INTRODUCTION
This is the most important aspect of German
language. If you have understood the cases, you
have understood German language. All the
grammar emerges from the cases in German;
therefore, one should understand the case with
utmost care. In fact, the whole syntax like
article, noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, and
preposition, etc., all revolves around the cases.
Most of the new learners get confused with
the cases in German, because they do not find
these words of cases widely used in English. The
cases are used in English also, but with different
names. Therefore, my humble suggestion is that,
until you understand one page, please do not
go for the other page, hurriedly. Because,
probably you cannot understand the next page, as
the all are interrelated and intermingled.
I do not want this book to be one more book
among the crowd of German books, which do not
give any clarity on this subject to a new learner,
therefore, please, follow suggestions cited
above.
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The cases indicate the role of article, noun,
pronoun, adjective and preposition in a sentence.
The case exists in English also, but named
sometimes differently.
The cases in German are as followsThe cases
┌────────────┬────┴───────┬──────┐
Nominative
Nominativ
uksfeukfVo
(Nom.)
accusative
akkusativ
vkDdwtk+ fVo
(Akk.)
genitive dative
genitive dativ
tsfufVo
MkfVo
(Gen.) (Dat.)
Nominative- This case shows the subject of the
sentence. e.g. I, we, thou, you, he, she, they.
Accusative- This case shows the direct object in
the sentence. e.g. me, us, you, him, her, them
DativeThis case shows the indirect object
of a sentence. English has no dative case. In
place of dative case , English uses preposition
‗ to‘ with a noun or pronoun. e.g. to me, to us, to
you, to him, to her, to them.
Genitive- This case shows the possessive
adjective in a sentence. e.g. of me/my, of us/our,
of you/your, of him/his, of her, of them/their.[‗of
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me‘ or ‗of you‘ etc. is rarely used like: inspite of
me or instead of you]
Look at these examples in English, which
contain all the casesThe friend of my sister writes a letter to us .
(Nom.)
(Gen.) (verb) (Akk.) (Dat.)
The friend of my brother sends us the flower.
(Nom.)
(Gen.)
(verb)(Dat.) (Akk.)
esjs HkkbZ dk nksLRk gedks ¼gekjs fy,½ Q+y
w
Hkstrk gS
(Gen.) (Nom.) (Dat.)
(Akk.) (verb)
d`i;k fuEufyf[kr dks tc rd u ;kn dj ysa] rc rd vkxs u c<s+a &
THE SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE IS IN
THE NOMINATIVE CASE.¼drkZ ;k djus okyk½
THE DIRECT OBJECT IS IN THE
ACCUSATIVE CASE. ¼deZ&izR;{k&ftl ij izR;{k
:Ik ls fØ;k gks jgh gS½
THE INDIRECT OBJECT IS IN THE
DATIVE CASE. ¼deZ&vizR;{k&ftl ij vizR;{k :Ik
ls fØ;k gks jgh gS½
THE GENITIVE CASE IS ASSOCIATED
WITH "OF".IT IS THE CASE OF
POSSESSION. ¼LokfeRo fn[kkus okyk ;k vfËkdkjh ½
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CHAPTER 51
WHAT IS THE CASE?
AN INSIGHT
Please look at the following sentences:
1. Do you see he?
2. Her is me sister.
3. Us buy this gift for they.
4. Her buys they this gift.
If these sentences do not sound right to you,
that is because you understand the function of
grammatical "case," even if the term is new to
you. Some words can indicate only a "doer"
performing the action of the verb, a subject.
Other words can only indicate the "one-doneunto" receiving the action of the verb, or object.
When we talk about "case," we describe how we
express ideas of "do-ers"¼drkZ ;k djus okyk½ or
"done-unto's,"¼deZ ;k ftl ij fØ;k gks jgh gS½ or
subjects and objects. Case describes the function
of a noun or pronoun.
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Some words can function in more than one
"case": "you" and "it" can be both subjects and
objects: "You love it. It loves you." How do you
know which one is doing the loving and which
one is being loved in these sentences? Word
order and the verb ending tell us which is the
nominative, the subject, the do-er, the lover. The
verb ending will be a valuable clue in German,
too, but we won't be able to depend on word
order because German word order follows
different rules. To figure this out in German we
have to learn about "case."
English uses the same pronouns for various kinds
of objects: German, however makes distinctions
among the various kinds of objects (direct
objects, indirect objects, and objects of
prepositions) and uses different cases for them.
To illustrate, let us correct the sentences given in
the table, and translate the corrections into
German.
Once again look at the following sentence1. Do you see he?
Do you see him?
Siehst du ihn?
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The subject is the do-er in a sentence
(e.g. "you see," "he sees").
The subject can only be a word in the nominative
case.
The pronoun "he" can only function as a subject.
The word "he" is nominative.
The object receives the action of the verb.
(The viewer views the object. The hearer hears
the object. The buyer buys the object. The lover
loves the object.)
The object is accusative.
The do-er or subject of "1. Do you see . . . ?" is
"you," not "he."
To complete this question we need a word that
can work as an object.
"1. Do you see h---?" needs an object word that
is masculine as well.
The pronoun "him" indicates a singular
masculine object.
The word "him" fits the sentence because it is
accusative.
Nominative: A word like "he" functioning as
the subject.
Accusative: A word like "him" functioning as
the direct object
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Every sentence has a subject and a
predicate. The subject is nominative. Every
sentence needs a nominative element.
Once again, please pay attention to the
following sentence2. Her is me sister.
She is my sister.
Sie ist meine Schwester.
"Her" can be a pronoun object, as in
"Do you know her? Send her a card. He got it for
her."
"Her" can be a possessive adjective, as in
"Her mother is your neighbor."
"Her" is not nominative, however: it cannot be
the subject.
The pronoun for a singular feminine subject is
"she."
The difference between "she" and "her" is a
difference of case. "She" is nominative, and
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"her" is not. The word "her" has other
functions: it can be either a pronoun object, or
a possessive adjective. The word "her" cannot
be the subject, because it is not nominative.
There are different kinds of objects. The direct
object receives the action of the verb.
Prepositions also take objects.
Look at the sentence once again:
3. Us buy this gift for they.
We buy this gift for them.
Wir kaufen dieses Geschenk für sie.
When we examined sentence 2, we saw that
"her" could not function as the subject, because it
is not nominative.
Here, notice that there are two objects in the
sentence: one is a direct object: "gift/Geschenk,"
the other the object of the preposition "for/für."
Both of these objects are in the accusative case.
We correct the sentence with a pronoun to
indicate the object of the preposition "for/für."
The word "they" can function only as the subject
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or do-er. It is nominative and cannot function as
an object.
In English, we use the same words for the direct
object, the object of a preposition or an indirect
object.
In German, we use different words for these
different kinds of objects.
Look at the sentences:
4.Her buys they this gift.
She buys them this gift.
Sie kauft ihnen dieses Geschenk.
The nominative word "they" clearly doesn't fit
here. The function of the word we need is
indirect object, the one who "benefits" from the
subject's action on the direct object.
The beneficiary of this buying = the indirect
object = them.
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subject
predicate
nominative verb
do-er
drkZ¼djus
okyk½
Action
fØ;k
She
buys
indirect
object
dative
to/for
whom
deZ&vizR;{k
¼[email protected]
fdlds fy;s\½
them
direct
object
accusative
done-unto
deZ&izR;{k
gift
When "them" can be restated as "for them"
or "to them," it is an indirect object.
We describe the function of the indirect object
as dative case in German.
The ideas expressed by the prepositions "to"
and "for" are strongly associated with the dative.
The words "to" and "for" are "built into" the
dative
She buys them this gift.
She buys this gift for
In
English,
a
them.
pronoun
like
"them" can function both as accusative and
dative
object.
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In German, however, we use different words to
distinguish accusative and dative objects.
Look at the sentencesA. Sie kauft dieses Geschenk für sie.
B. Sie kauft ihnen dieses Geschenk.
She buys this gift for them.
She buys them this gift.
The English word "them" is expressed in
sentence A as "sie," while in sentence B it is
"ihnen."
Because in sentence A, "them" is the object of
the preposition "for," or "für," German requires
the
use
of
the
accusative
case.
Because in sentence B, "them" expresses an
indirect object, German requires the use of the
dative case.
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d`i;k bls tc rd ;kn u dj ysa] rc rd vkxs u c<s+a &
THE SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE IS IN
THE NOMINATIVE CASE.¼drkZ&djus okyk½
THE DIRECT OBJECT IS IN THE
ACCUSATIVE CASE. ¼deZ&izR;{k&ftl ij izR;{k
:Ik ls fØ;k gks jgh gS½
THE INDIRECT OBJECT IS IN THE
DATIVE CASE. ¼ deZ&vizR;{k&ftl ij vizR;{k :Ik
ls fØ;k gks jgh gS½
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CHAPTER 52
‘AKKUSATIV’ IN DETAIL
If you misuse the accusative case in
German, it could be very similar to saying
something like "him has the book" or "her saw he
yesterday" in English. With the confusion this
might cause, you can see this is not something to
take lightly! It's not just some esoteric grammar
point; it impacts whether people will understand
your German or not (and whether you'll
understand them).
In English the accusative case is known as
the objective case (direct object). In German you
can tell that a noun is in the accusative case by
the masculine article, which changes from
der/ein to den/einen. (Since the accusative only
changes in the masculine gender, you don't need
to worry about the feminine, neuter or plural.)
The masculine pronoun er (he) changes to ihn
(him), in much the same way as English.
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Der Hund beißt den Mann.
The dog bites the man.
Er beißt ihn.
He (the dog) bites him (the man).
Den Mann beißt der Hund.
The dog bites the man.
Beißt der Hund den Mann?
Is the dog biting the man?
Beißt den Mann der Hund?
Is the dog biting the man?
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs-The direct
object (accusative) functions as the receiver of
the action of a transitive verb. In the examples
above, the man is acted upon by the dog, i.e.,
receives the action of the subject ("dog"). To
give a few more transitive verb examples, when
you buy (kaufen) something or have (haben)
something, the "something" is a direct object.
The subject (the person buying or having) is
acting on some object.
You can test for a transitive verb by saying it
without an object. If it sounds odd, and seems to
need an object to sound right, then it is probably
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a transitive verb. Example: I have... / Ich habe...;
He bought... / Er kaufte... - Both of these phrases
answer the implied question "what?" What do
you have? What did he buy? And whatever that
is, is the direct object and in the accusative case
in German.
On the other hand if you do this with an
intransitive verb, such as "to sleep," "to die," or
"to wait," no direct-object completion is needed.
You can't "sleep," "die" or "wait" something.
(Two apparent exceptions to this test, become
and be, are actually not exceptions, since they are
intransitive verbs that act like an equal sign, and
can not take an object.) A good additional clue in
German: all verbs that take the helping verb sein
(to be) are intransitive. Some verbs in English
and German can be either transitive or
intransitive, but the key is to remember that if
you have a direct object, you'll have the
accusative case in German.
THE DIRECT OBJECT IS IN THE
ACCUSATIVE CASE.
¼deZ&izR;{k&ftl ij izR;{k :Ik ls fØ;k gks jgh gS½
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CHAPTER 53
‘DATIV’ IN DETAIL
The dative case in German is a vital element
of communicating in German. In English the
dative case is known as the indirect object.
Unlike the accusative, which only changes in the
masculine gender, the dative changes in all
genders and in the plural. The pronouns also
change correspondingly.
In addition to its function as the indirect object,
the dative is also used after certain dative verbs
and with dative prepositions., the dative word or
expression are in the examples below Der Polizist gibt dem Fahrer einen Strafzettel.
The policeman is giving the driver a ticket.
Ich danke Ihnen.
I thank you.
Wir machen das mit einem Computer.
We do that with a computer.
The indirect object (dative) is usually the
receiver of the direct object (accusative). In the
first example above, the driver got the ticket.
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Often the dative can be translated with "to"—
"the policeman gives the ticket to the driver."
The following chart shows how the dative forms
are used in various situations.
Fall
Case
Nom
Dat
Definite Article (the)
Masc.
Fem.
derMsj
dieMh
derMsj
demMse
der FrauÝkvkswoman
dem BleistiftCykbfLV¶V der Verkäuferin
Q+sjdsmQ+fju
Pencil
saleswaman
dem Manneku Man
dem Wagenokxsucar
dem Präsidenten*
izst+hMsUVsuPresident
dem Jungen*;qUxsu
Youngester
*Note: Some masc. nouns add an -en or -n ending
in the dative and in all other cases besides the
nominative.
Fall
Neu.
Plur.
Case
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Nom
das
die
Dat dem
den
dem MädchenesM’ksu den Leuten
yks;Vsupeople
girl
dem Haus
den Autos
gkmlHouse
vkmVkslcars
Note: In the dative, plural nouns add an -en or -n
if the plural does not already end in -n, except for
plurals ending in -s.
Indefinite Article (ein, eine, keine)
Fall
Masc.
Fem.
Case
Nom
ein
eine
Dat
einem
einer
einer Frau
einem Bleistift
einer Verkäuferin
einem Mann
einem Wagen
einem Präsidenten*
einem Jungen*
*Note: Some masc. nouns add an -en or -n
ending in the dative and in all other cases
besides the nominative.
Fall
Neu.
Plur.
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Case
Nom
Dat
ein
keine
einem
keinen
einem Mädchen
keinen Leuten
einem Haus
keinen Autos
Note: In the dative, plural nouns add an -en or -n
if the plural does not already end in -n, except for
plurals ending in -s.
The Germanic word for the dative case, der
Wemfall, reflects the der-to-dem change. The
question word in the dative is, naturally enough,
wem ([to] whom): Wem hast du das Buch
gegeben?, Whom did you give book? (Who'd
you give the book to?)
Some German verbs do not take an accusative
object. For more about these exceptions, see next
chapter Dative Verbs.
THE INDIRECT OBJECT IS IN THE
DATIVE CASE.
¼ deZ&vizR;{k&ftl ij vizR;{k :Ik ls fØ;k gks jgh gS½
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CHAPTER 54
‘DATIV’ VERBS
A number of verbs are called "dative verbs"
because they require a dative object, rather than
an accusative one.
Often these verbs can be translated with the idea
of "to" or "for," which are the ideas associated
with the dative.
For example:
helfen to help, to Du hilfst mir.
give help to
You help me.
Ich möchte Ihnen
danken to thank, to
danken.
give thanks to
I 'd like to thank you.
Folge mir!
folgen to follow
Follow me!
gratulieren to
congratulate, to
Ich gratuliere Ihnen!
give congratulations I congratulate you!
to
Der Film gefällt
gefallen to be
meinem Vater nicht.
pleasing to
The movie is not
pleasing to my father.
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gehören to belong
to
glauben to believe,
to give credence to
passieren,
geschehen to
happen to
zuhören to listen to
(Better translated as:
My father does not like
the movie.)
Wem gehört dieses
Buch?
To whom does this
book belong?
Ich glaube ihnen nicht.
Ihm habe ich noch nie
geglaubt.
I don't believe them.
Him, I never have
believed.
Was ist dir denn
passiert? Geschieht das
dir oft?
So what happened to
you? Does that happen
to you often?
Ich habe euch zugehört;
jetzt hört mir doch zu.
I listened to you (guys);
now listen to me.
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When you learn a new verb, it is best to learn if
it is a dative verb as well.
If a verb is a dative verb, practice it with dative
objects.
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CHAPTER 55
THE REFLEXIVE VERBS
Present tense of reflexive verbs taking an
accusative pronoun-The present tense of a
reflexive verb consists of a verb with the normal
present tense endings followed by the reflexive
pronoun in the appropriate case. Here is the
present tense of a reflexive verb which takes a
reflexive pronoun in the accusative case:
Present tense of "sich rasieren" ft+‛k jkft+;sjsu
Singular
I shave myself
ich rasiere mich
jkft+;sjs fe‛k
You shave yourself
du rasierst dich
jkft+;sLVZ fM‛k
(informal/formal)
Sie rasieren sich
jkft+;sjs ft+‛k
He shaves himself
er rasiert sich
jkft+;sVZ ft+‛k
Plural
We shave ourselves
wir rasieren uns
jkft+;sjsu mUl
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ihr rasiert euch
jkft+;sVZ vksb‛k
Sie rasieren sich
jkft+;sjsu ft+‛k
You shave yourselves
(informal/formal)
sie rasieren sich
jkft+;sjsu ft+‛k
They shave themselves
If the reflexive verb is also separable, then the
separable prefix of the verb will follow the
pronoun (and any other elements of the clause).
Present tense of "sich anziehen" ft+‛k vkURlhgsu
Singular
I get dressed
ich ziehe mich an
Rlhgs fe‛k vku
You get dressed
du ziehst dich an
RlhLV fM‛k vku
(informal/formal)
Sie ziehen sich an
Rlhgsu ft+‛k vku
er/sie/es zieht sich an He/she/it gets dressed
RlhV ft+‛k vku
Plural
We get dressed
Wir ziehen uns an
Rlhgsu mUl vku
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ihr zieht euch an
RlhV vksb‛k vku
Sie ziehen sich an
Rlhgsu ft+‛k vku
sie ziehen sich an
Rlhgsu ft+‛k vku
You get dressed
(informal/formal)
They get dressed
Present tense of reflexive verbs with a modal
verb
When reflexive verbs are preceded by a modal
verb, the infinitive of the verb itself is used, but
the reflexive pronoun agrees with the subject of
the verb. The reflexive pronoun in such cases is
identical to the appropriate pronoun in the
present tense of the reflexive verb:
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Present tense of modal + reflexive verb
Singular
ich muss mich waschen I must have a wash
ewl fe‛k ok’ksu
You must have a wash
(informal/formal)
du musst dich waschen
ewLV fM‛k ok’ksu
Sie müssen sich waschen
E;w‛ksu ft+‛k ok’ksu
He must have a wash
er muss sich waschen
ewl ft+‛k ok’ksu
Plural
wir müssen uns waschen We must have a wash
E;w‛ksu mUl ok’ksu
ihr müsst euch waschen You must have a wash
ewLV vksb‛k ok’ksu
(informal/formal)
Sie müssen sich waschen
E;wlsu ft+‛k ok’ksu
sie müssen sich waschen They must have a wash
E;w‛ksu ft+‛k ok’ksu
Present tense of reflexive verbs taking a dative
pronoun
A number of verbs use the reflexive pronoun in
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the dative case. Only two of the dative reflexive
pronouns are different from their equivalent
accusative reflexive pronoun. These are mich and
dich which become mir and dir respectively.
Here is the present tense of sich vorstellen, a
separable verb which takes a reflexive pronoun
in the dative case when it means "to imagine":
Present tense of "sich vorstellen"
Singular
I imagine
ich stelle mir vorLVsys ehj Q+ksj
You imagine
du stellst dir vorLVsYLV MhjQ+ksj
(informal/formal)
Sie stellen sich vorLVsysu ft+‛k
Q+ksj
er/sie stellt sich vorLVsYV ft+‛k
Q+ksj
He/she
imagines
Plural
wir stellen uns voLVsysu mUl Q+ksj We imagine
ihr stellt euch vorLVsYV vksb‛k Q+ksj You imagine
Sie stellen sich vorLVsysu ft+‛kQ+ksj (informal/formal)
sie stellen sich vorLVsysu ft+‛k Q+ksj They imagine
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Reflexive verbs concerning the body
The dative reflexive pronoun is used in German
with certain verbs when they refer to doing
things to parts of the body (sich waschen) and
putting on or taking off articles of clothing (sich
anziehen,
sich
ausziehen).
The dative reflexive pronoun must be used when
you specify which part of your body you are
washing or which article of clothing you are
putting on or taking off. Furthermore, the definite
article is used to refer to the specific part of the
body, whereas in English the possessive (my,
your, his etc.) is used. It is therefore the task of
the dative reflexive pronoun to indicate
possession.[Please refer the chapter the parts of
body]
Dative reflexive pronouns
I wash my hands
ich wasche mir die
Hände
You wash your
du wäscht dir das
face
Gesicht
I put my shirt on
ich ziehe mir das
Hemd an
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You take your
shoes off
du ziehst dir die
Schuhe aus
Great care must therefore be taken to distinguish
between the following pairs of verbs:




Ich wasche mich. (I'm having a wash.)
Ich wasche mir die Hände. (I'm washing my
hands.)
Du ziehst dich an. (You get dressed.)
Du ziehst dir die Hose an. (You put your
trousers on.)
The same construction is also used in German to
translate "to clean one's teeth". The full present
tense of this construction is given below.
Present tense of "sich die Zähne putzen"
Singular
I clean my teeth
ich putze mir die
Zähne
You clean your teeth
du putzt dir die
(informal/formal)
Zähne
Sie putzen sich die
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Zähne
er/sie putzt sich die
Zähne
He/she cleans her
teeth
Plural
wir putzen uns die
Zähne
ihr putzt euch die
Zähne
Sie putzen sich die
Zähne
We clean our teeth
You clean your teeth
(informal/formal)
They clean their teeth
sie putzen sich die
Zähne
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CHAPTER 56
‘GENITIV’ IN DETAIL
The genitive case in German shows possession
and is expressed in English by the possessive
"of" or an apostrophe-s ('s). The genitive case is
also used with some verb idioms and with the
genitive prepositions. The genitive is used more
in written German than in spoken form. In
spoken, everyday German, von plus the dative
often replaces the genitive: Das Auto von
meinem Bruder = My brother's car.
You can tell that a noun is in the genitive case by
the article, which changes to des/eines
(masculine and neuter) or der/einer (feminine
and plural). Since the genitive only has two
forms (des or der), you only need to learn those
two. However, in the masculine and neuter, there
is also an additional noun ending, either -es or -s:
das Auto meines Bruders
my brother's car (the car of my brother)
die Bluse des Mädchens
the girl's blouse (the blouse of the girl)
der Titel des Filmes (Films)
the title of the film
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Feminine and plural nouns do not add an ending
in the genitive. The feminine genitive (der/einer)
is identical to the feminine dative. The one-word
genitive article usually translates as two words
(of the / of a/an) in English.
Definite Articles (the)
Fall
Masc.
Neu.
Fem.
Plur.
Case
Nom
der
das
die
die
Gen
des (-es/s)*
der
Indefinite Article (a/an)
Nom
ein
ein
eine
keine
Gen
eines (-es/s)*
(k)einer
*Note: Some masc. nouns add an -en or -n
ending in the genitive and in all other cases
besides the nominative.
Adjective endings: In the genitive case,
adjectives almost always have an -en ending.
Examples: des neuen Autos, der hohen Kosten
The Germanic word for the genitive case is der
Wesfall. The question word in the genitive is
wessen (whose): Wessen Buch hast du?
(Whose book do you have?)
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When showing possession with the names of
people, countries or cities, German adds an s
(without an apostrophe): Karls Haus, Marias
Buch, die Geschichte Deutschlands (Germany's
history). Unfortunately, many German-speakers
have adopted the English practice of using an
apostrophe (Karl's Auto) for the possessive
forms, but it is still considered to be substandard
German.
Genitive Expressions
The genitive is used in some idiomatic
expressions.
Ende der Woche gehen wir.
At the end of the week we're going.
Ich muss das Anfang des Monats bezahlen.
I have to pay that at the start of the month.
genitive
with
subject:
genitive
with direct
object
Das Büro meines Vaters ist hier.
My father's office (the office of my
father) is here.
Möchtest du das Büro meines
Vaters sehen? Would you like to
see my father's office?
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genitive
with
indirect
object
genitive
with dative
object
Wir schicken der Mutter unseres
Freundes ein Geschenk. We're
sending a gift to our friend's
mother.
Wir helfen der Mutter unseres
Freundes.We're helping our
friend's mother.
Wir kaufen ein Geschenk für die
Mutter unseres Freundes. We're
genitive
buying a gift for our friend's
with the
mother.
object of a Wir übernachten bei der Familie
preposition: unseres Kollegen. We're spending
the night at the home of our
colleague's family.
Hier ist die Adresse des Vaters des
Kindes. Here is the child's father's
address.
genitive
(This doesn't sound any better in
with
German than it does in English.
genitive
Just as in English, Germans would
prefer to say: Hier ist die Adresse
von dem Vater des Kindes. Here is
the address of the child's father.)
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More About the Genitive Case
It may offer you some comfort to know that even
Germans have problems with the genitive. A
common error made by native-speakers of
German is to use an apostrophe — English-style
— in possessive forms. For instance, they will
often write ―Karl’s Buch‖ instead of the correct
form, ―Karls Buch.‖ Some observers claim this
is an influence of English, but it is an influence
that is often seen on store signs and even on the
sides of trucks in Austria and Germany.
For non-Germans, there are other genitive
problems of more concern. While it is true that
the genitive case is used less in spoken German,
and its frequency even in formal, written German
has declined over the last few decades, there are
still many situations when mastery of the
genitive is important.
Looking into dictionary-When you look up a
noun in a German dictionary, whether bilingual
or German-only, you'll see two endings
indicated. The first indicates the genitive ending,
the second is the plural ending or form. Here are
two examples for the noun Film:
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Film, der; -(e)s, -e / Film m -(e)s, -e
The first entry is from a paperback all-German
dictionary. The second is from a large GermanEnglish dictionary. Both tell you the same thing:
The gender of Film is masculine (der), the
genitive form is des Filmes or des Films (of the
film) and the plural is die Filme (films, movies).
Since feminine nouns in German don't have any
genitive ending, a dash indicates no ending:
Kapelle, die; -, -n.
The genitive form of most neuter and
masculine nouns in German is fairly predictable,
with an -s or -es ending. (Almost all nouns
ending in s, ss, ß, sch, z or tz must end with -es
in the genitive.) However, there are some nouns
with unusual genitive forms. Most of these
irregular forms are masculine nouns with a
genitive -n ending, rather than -s or -es. Most
(but not all) words in this group are "weak"
masculine nouns that take an -n or -en ending in
the accusative and dative cases, plus some neuter
nouns. Here are a few examples:
der Architekt - des Architekten (architect)
der Bauer - des Bauern (farmer, peasant)
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der Friede(n) - des Friedens (peace)
der Gedanke - des Gedankens (thought, idea)
der Herr - des Herrn (sir, gentleman)
das
Herz
des
Herzens
(heart)
der
Klerus
des
Klerus
(clergy)
der Mensch - des Menschen (person, human)
der Nachbar - des Nachbarn (neighbor)
der Name - des Namens (name)
THE GENITIVE CASE IS ASSOCIATED
WITH "OF". IT IS THE CASE OF
POSSESSION.
¼LokfeRo fn[kkus okyk ;k vfËkdkjh ½
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CHAPTER 57
ARTICLES IN DIFFERENT CASES
English also has cases, but they are only
apparent with pronouns, not with nouns, as in
German. When "he" changes to "him" in English,
that's exactly the same thing that happens when
der changes to den in German (and er changes
to ihn). This allows German to have more
flexibility in word order, as in the examples :
Der Hund beißt den Mann. Msj gqaM ckbLV Msu eku
The dog bites the man.
Den Mann beißt der Hund. Msu eku ckbLV Msj gqaM
The dog bites the man.
Beißt der Hund den Mann?ckbLV Msj gqaM Msu eku\
Is the dog biting the man?
Beißt den Mann der Hund?ckbLV Msu eku Msj gqaM\
Is the dog biting the man?
Since English does not have the same case
markers (der/den), it must depend on word
order. If you say "Man bites dog" in English,
rather than "Dog bites man," you change the
meaning. In German the word order can be
changed for emphasis (as above)—without
altering the basic meaning.
213
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Definite Articles (the)
Fall Männlich Weiblich Sächlich Mehrzahl
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Plural
Nom
der
die
das
die
Akk
den
die
das
die
Dat
dem
der
dem
den
Gen
des
der
des
der
Indefinite Articles (a/an)
Fall Männlich Weiblich Sächlich Mehrzahl
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Plural
Nom
keine*
ein
eine
ein
Akk
keine*
einen
eine
ein
Dat
einem
einer
einem keinen*
Gen
keiner*
eines
einer
eines
*Note: keine is the negative of eine, which has
no plural form. But keine (no/none) can be used
in the plural: "Er hat keine Bücher." (He has no
books.) - "In Venedig gibt es keine Autos." (In
Venice there are no cars.)
The Germanic word for each case reflects how
that case functions in the use of forms of wer
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(who): der Werfall (nom.), der Wenfall (acc.),
der Wemfall (dat.) and der Wesfall (gen.).
You have already seen that the genders of
German nouns are typically shown by way of an
accompanying definite article: der (masculine),
die (feminine), or das (neuter). These are the
nominative case forms of the definite articles.
When a noun is used in a different case, the form
of its definite article may change. No matter the
case or the inflected form, the definite article still
means the.
Masc.
Fem.
neuter
plural
Nom.
der
Mann
die
Frau
das
Kind
die
Kinder
Acc.
den
Mann
die
Frau
das
Kind
die
Kinder
Dat.
dem
Mann
der
Frau
dem
den
Kind Kindern
Gen.
des
der
des
der
Mannes Frau Kindes Kinder
The plural form of the definite article is
identical to the feminine form in the
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nominative and accusative cases (die). Note
that the noun is usually identifiable as either
feminine or plural, because the plural noun
itself has an altered form:
die Frau (singular) > die Frauen (plural)
die Tochter > die Töchter
die Blume > die Blumen
Also note that there are three instances where
a noun itself takes on an ending to help
signify its case:
1) Nouns in the dative plural add an -n, unless
the plural form already ends in -n or -s.
nominative
nominative
dative plural
singular
plural
der Mann
die Männer
den Männern
die Mutter
die Mütter
den Müttern
der Freund
die Freunde
den Freunden
die Freundin die Freundinnen
den
Freundinnen
das Auto
die Autos
den Autos
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2) Masculine and 3) neuter nouns in the genitive
case add an -s or an -es suffix. One-syllable
nouns typically add -es. Nouns with more than
one syllable just add -s.
der Mann (nominative) > des Mannes (genitive)
der
Wagen
>
des
Wagens
das
Buch
>
des
Buches
das Telefon > des Telefons
These endings are vestiges of an older system
of case inflection in which the nouns
themselves altered their suffixes to signify
case.
der-wordsA number of words behave in their
case inflection like the definite articles.
dieserMht+j (m),diese (f), dieses (n)
this, these
Jeder;sMj, jede;sMs, jedes;sMsl
each, every
welcherosY’kj,welche, welches
jener;suj, jene, jenes
which
that, those
mancheresU’kj, manche, manches
many
Solchert+ksY‛kj, solche, solches
such
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Because these words are declined much like
the definite articles, they are often referred to
as der-words. The only difference is that in the
neuter nominative and accusative, the article
ending is -es instead of -as.
masculine feminine neuter
plural
Nom.
dieser
Mann
diese
Frau
dieses diese
Kind Kinder
Acc.
diesen
Mann
diese
Frau
dieses diese
Kind Kinder
Dat.
diesem
Mann
dieser diesem diesen
Frau
Kind Kindern
Gen.
dieses
Mannes
dieser dieses dieser
Frau Kindes Kinder
Just like the definite articles, these der-words
precede nouns and indicate the case of the
accompanying noun.
Indefinite articles or ein-words
Indefinite articles can also precede a noun
and specify its case. The indefinite article ein
and all of its inflectional variations mean a or
an. Because of this, ein cannot be used with
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the plural form of a noun. Just as one would
never say "a books" or "a children" in
English, it is neither possible to combine ein
or any variation of it with plural forms in
German.
Masc.
Fem.
neuter
plural
Nom.
ein Mann
eine
Frau
ein Kind
Kinder
Acc.
einen Mann
eine
Frau
ein Kind
Kinder
Dat.
einem Mann
einer
Frau
einem
Kind
Kindern
Gen. eines Mannes
einer
Frau
eines
Kindes
Kinder
Although it is unacceptable to use theindefinite
article with a plural form, the German article
kein, which is inflected similarly to ein and
means no, not a, can be and often is combined
with plurals.
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Masc.
Fem.
neuter
plural
Nom.
kein
Mann
keine
Frau
kein
Kind
keine
Kinder
Acc.
keinen
Mann
keine
Frau
kein
Kind
keine
Kinder
Dat.
keinem
Mann
keiner keinem keinen
Frau
Kind Kindern
Gen.
keines keiner
Mannes Frau
keines
Kindes
keiner
Kinder
As noted above with respect to definite
articles, with indefinite articles, too, do the
nouns themselves take endings in the dative
plural (-n) and the genitive masculine and
neuter (-[e]s).
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CHAPTER 58
PRONOUNS
IN DIFFERENT CASES
As discussed in the previous chapter, English
cases are only apparent only with pronouns and
not with nouns. German pronouns, also take on
different forms (i.e., are "declined") in the
various cases. Just as nominative "I" changes to
objective "me" in English, nominative ich
changes to accusative mich in German. Oberve
the following German-English examples:
Er (der Hund) beißt den Mann.
He (the dog) bites the man.
Ihn (den Mann) hat der Hund gebissen.
The dog bit him (the man).
Wen hat er gebissen?
Whom did he bite?
Wer ist das?
Who is that?
Du hast mich doch gesehen?
You did see me (didn't you)?
Die hat keine Ahnung.
She/That one has no idea.
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Most of the German personal pronouns have
different forms in each of the four cases, but it
can be helpful to observe that some (similar to
English "you") do not always change. An
example is "she"/sie (also "they"/sie and
"you"/Sie). This pronoun, regardless of its
meaning, remains the same in the nominative and
accusative cases. In the dative it changes to
ihnen/Ihnen, while the possessive form is ihr/Ihr.
Two German pronouns use the same form in
both the accusative and the dative (uns, euch).
The third-person pronouns (he, she, it) follow the
rule that only the masculine gender shows any
change in the accusative case. Neither neuter es
nor feminine sie changes. But in the dative case,
all of the pronouns take on uniquely dative
forms.
In the following pages pronouns in different
cases are given in charts to have a clear
understanding.
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Fall
Case
Nom
Akk
Dat
Gen*
(Poss.)
First
Person
singular
Ichb‛k
I
Michfe‛k
me
mirehj
(to) me
meinekbu
my
First
Person
plural
wirohj
we
unsmUl
us
unsmUl
(to) us
unsermUlj
our
223
Second
Person
singular
Dun~;w
you
dichfM‛k
you
dirMhj
(to) you
deinMkbu
your
Second
Person
plural
Ihrbvj
you
euchvkW;‛k
you
euchvkW;‛k
(to) you
euervkW;j
your
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Fall
Case
Nom
Akk
Dat
Gen*
(Poss.)
Third-Person Pronouns
Männlich Weiblich Sächlich Mehrzahl
masculine feminine neutar
plural
Er,j
siet+h
Es,l
Siet+h
he
she
it
they
ihnbZu
sie;
es
sie
it
them
him
her
ihm
ihr
ihm
ihnen
(to) him (to) her (to) it
(to) them
sein
ihr
sein
ihre
his
her
its
their
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Demonstrative Pronouns (der, die, denen)
Fall Männlich Weiblich Sächlich Mehrzahl
Case
masc.
fem.
neut.
plural
Nom
der
die
das
die
that one that one that one
these
Akk
den
die
das
die
that one that one that one
those
Dat
dem
der
dem
denen
(to) that (to) that (to) that (to) them
Gen
dessen
deren dessen
deren
of that
of that of that of them
Note: When the definite articles are used as
demonstrative pronouns, only the dative plural
and genitive forms are different from the normal
definite articles.
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CHAPTER 59
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
Possessive adjectives are those adjectives
which refer to ownership, such as "your" and
"his" in "What is your name?" or "What is his
name?". We have already met some of them in
the German equivalent of these questions "Wie
ist Ihr Name?" or "Wie ist sein Name?". The full
list of possessive adjectives is as follows:
Nominative of possessive adjectives
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
mein
meine
mein meine
My
Your dein
deine
dein deine
Ihre
Ihr
Ihre
(sing.) Ihr
sein
seine
sein
seine
His
ihr
ihre
ihr
ihre
Her
sein
seine
sein
seine
Its
unser
unsere unser unsere
Our
Your euer
eure
euer eure
Ihre
Ihr
Ihre
(plural) Ihr
ihre
ihr
ihre
Their ihr
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Once again, we find that the endings on all
possessive adjectives change when they are in
the accusative. We require a second table to
explain these fully:
Accusative of possessive adjectives
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
My
meinen meine
mein meine
Your deinen
deine
dein deine
Ihre
Ihr
Ihre
(sing.) Ihren
seinen
seine
sein
seine
His
ihren
ihre
ihr
ihre
Her
seinen
seine
sein
seine
Its
unseren unsere unser unsere
Our
Your euren
eure
euer eure
Ihre
Ihr
Ihre
(plural) Ihren
ihre
ihr
ihre
Their ihren
N.B.
1) Be very careful to distinguish between Ihr (=
"your" (polite)) and ihr (= "their; her"). The
capital
letter
is
crucial
here!
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2) The spelling of the various forms of euer,
which means "your" when you are addressing
more than one person informally, can prove
difficult. When an ending is added to "euer", the
second "-e-" of the stem disappears.
So whilst "your child" is "euer Kind", "your
children" translates as "eure Kinder", and "your
cat" is "eure Katze".
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CHAPTER 60
THE PREPOSITIONS
We can classify the prepositions in German in
four partsA. Akkusative Only Prepositions
B. Two way prepostitions
Akkusative or Dative
C. Dative Only Prepostions
D. Genitive Prepositions
229
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A.Accusative Only Prepositions
until, to, by
bis*fcl
through, by
durchM~;w’kZ
along, down
Entlang,aVykax
for
für¶;wj
against, for
Gegenxsxsu
without
Ohnevksus
around, for; at (time)
Umme
*NOTE: The German preposition bis is
technically an accusative preposition, but it is
almost always used with a second preposition
(bis zu, bis auf, etc.) in a different case, or
without an article (bis April, bis Montag, bis
Bonn).
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B.Two-Way Prepositions taking
Either Accusative or Dative
NOTE: The meaning of a two-way preposition
often depends on whether it is used with the
accusative or dative case.
at, on, to
Anvku
at, to, on, upon
AufvkmQ+
behind
hinterfgUVj
in, into
Inbu
beside, near, next to
Nebenuscsu
about, above, across, over
Überb;wcj
under, among
untermUVj
in front of, before;
vorQ+kWj
ago(time)
between
zwischenfRLo’ksu
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C.Dative Only Prepositions
from, out of
Ausvkml
except for, besides
Außervkmlj
at, near
BeickbZ
across from, opposite
GegenüberxsxsU;wcj
with, by
MitfeV
after, to
Nachuk[k
since (time), for
Seitt+kbV
by, from
VonQ+kWu
at, to
ZuRlw
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D.Genitive Prepositions
instead of
anstattvkU’VkV
statt’VkV
outside of
außerhalbvkmljgkYc
inside of
innerhalbbujgkYc
despite, in spite of
Trotz=ksRl
during, in the
Währendosgjs.M
course of
because of
Wegenosxsu
NOTE: The genitive prepositions listed above
are often used with the dative in spoken German,
particularly in certain regions. Examples:
trotz dem Wetter - in spite of the weather
während der Woche - during the week (same
as genitive)
wegen den Kosten - because of the costs
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Combination of the prepositions
an demvku Mse
am vke
to /at the
auf dasvkmQ+ Mkl aufsvkm¶+l upon the
für das¶;wj Mkl fürs¶;wlZ
for the
in dasbu Mkl
insbUl
into the
zu demRlw Mse
zumRlqe
to the
an dasvku Mkl
ansvkUl
to/on the
bei demckb Mse
beimckbe
at the
in dembu Mse
Imbe
in the
von demQ+kWu Mse vomQ+kWe
from, of the
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A. Akkusative only prepositions
An insight
Certain German prepositions are governed by the
accusative case. That is, they take an object in
the accusative case. The accusative prepositions
tend to be used a lot and it is important to learn
them early in your study of German.
In English, prepositions take the objective case
(object of the preposition) and all prepositions
take the same case. In German, prepositions
come in several "flavors,"
Here are examples of Akkusativ only preposition
Ohne Geld geht's nicht.
Without money it won't work.
Sie geht den Fluss entlang.
She walking along the river.
Er arbeitet für eine große Firma.
He works for a big company.
Wir fahren durch die Stadt.
We're driving through the city.
Schreibst du einen Brief an deinen Vater?
Are you writing a letter to your father?
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Notice in the second example above that the
object (Fluss) comes before the preposition
(entlang). Some German prepositions use this
reverse word order, but the object must still be in
the correct case.
durch through
Er geht durch den Garten.
He walks through the garden.
für for
Kauf das Geschenk für sie.
Buy the gift for her.
gegen against
Der Demokratiker ist gegen den Republikaner.
The Democrat is against the Republican.
ohne without
Viele Menschen leben ohne einen Computer.
Many people live without a computer.
um around
Wir fahren um die Universität.
We are driving around the university
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B.Two way Prepositions taking
either Accusative or Dative
an, auf, hinter, in, neben, über, unter, vor,
zwischen
An insight
The basic rule for determining whether a twoway preposition should have an object in the
accusative or dative case is motion versus
location. If there is motion towards something or
to a specific location (wohin?, where to?), then
usually that is accusative. If there is no motion at
all or random motion going nowhere in particular
(wo?, where (at)?), then that is usually dative.
This rule applies only to the so-called "two-way"
or "dual" prepositions in German. (For example,
a dative-only preposition like nach is always
dative, whether there is motion or not.) Here are
two sets of examples:
Wir gehen ins Kino. (in das, accus.)
We're going to the movies/cinema. (motion
towards)
Wir sind im Kino. (in dem, dat.)
We're at the movies/cinema. (location)
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Legen Sie das Buch auf den Tisch. (accusative)
Put/Lay the book on the table. (motion towards)
Das Buch liegt auf dem Tisch. (dative)
The book's lying on the table. (location)
A single German two-way preposition—such as
in or auf—may have more than one English
translation, as you can see above. In addition,
you'll find many of these prepositions have yet
another meaning in common everyday idioms
and expressions: auf dem Lande (in the
country), um drei Uhr (at three o'clock), unter
uns (among us), am Mittwoch (on Wednesday),
vor einer Woche (a week ago), etc. Such
expressions can be learned as vocabulary without
worrying about the grammar involved
Following are the exemples with the
accusative
This group of prepositions is followed by the
accusative when they express a change of
location.
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Hang the picture on the
wall. (It wasn't on the wall
before.)
Put the wine-bottle on the
Stell die Weinflasche
table. (It wasn't on the table
auf den Tisch.
before.)
Hang the picture on the
Hänge das Bild an
wall. (It wasn't on the wall
die Wand.
before.)
Put the wine-bottle on the
Stell die Weinflasche
table. (It wasn't on the table
auf den Tisch.
before.)
Parken Sie das Auto Park the car behind the
hinter das Haus.
house.
We're going to the movies
Wir gehen ins Kino. (literally, into the movietheater).
Hänge die Lampe
Hang the lamp over the
über den Tisch.
table.
Fahr den Wagen vor Drive the car in front of the
das Haus.
house.
Setz dich zwischen Sit down between him and
ihn und mich.
me
Hänge das Bild an
die Wand.
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In the previous sentences, the prepositions are
followed by the accusative because the
prepositional phrases indicate a destination, or a
change in location.
Following are the examples with the dative
This group of prepositions always takes the
dative when used in a time expression
answering the question Wann? (when?) (am
Montag, im Juni, vor einer Woche).
When used in reference to space, the dative is
used to indicate a location (not a change of
location,
which
requires
accusative).
The picture is hanging on
the wall. (no change in
location)
Die Weinflasche
The wine-bottle is
steht auf dem Tisch. (standing) on the table.
Das Auto steht
The car is (standing)
hinter dem Haus.
behind the house.
Das Bild hängt an
der Wand.
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Der Film im Kino ist
sehr gut.
Die Lampe hängt
über dem Tisch.
Der Wagen steht vor
dem Haus.
Du sitzt zwischen
ihm und mir.
The movie in the theater is
very good.
The lamp is (hanging) over
the table.
The car is (standing) in
front of the house.
You are sitting between
him and me.
In these sentences, the prepositions are followed
by the dative, because the prepositional phrases
do not indicate a change in location, but simply a
location.
To summarize:
CHANGE IN LOCATION? USE
ACCUSATIVE
NO CHANGE IN LOCATION? USE
DATIVE
WANN?(WHEN) USE DATIVE
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C.Dative Only Prepositions
aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu
An insight
The following prepositions are always followed
by the dative case.They are the dative
prepositions.
aus from
Ich komme aus den Vereinigten Staaten.
I come from the United States.
Ihre Jacke ist aus grüner Seide.
Her jacket is made of green silk.
außer except for, besides
Außer ihm denken wir alle so.
Except for him, we all think so.
bei with, near, at, at the home of
Die Party ist bei mir.
The party's at my house.
Meine Mutter arbeitet bei einer großen Firma.
My mother works for a big company.
mit with, by
Kommst du mit uns?
Are you coming with us?Nein, ich fahre mit dem
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Taxi.
No, I'm going by taxi.
nach after, to, according to
Nach der Klasse gehen wir ins Kaffeehaus.
After class we're going to the coffeehouse.
Nächsten Sommer fahre ich nach Deutschland.
Next summer I'm going to Germany.
Diesem Artikel nach ist das falsch.
According to this article, that's wrong.
seit for, since
Ich studiere deutsch seit zwei Monaten.
I've been studying German for two months.
Der Patient wartet schon seit einer Stunde.
The patient has been waiting for an hour already.
von of, from, by
Greta ist eine Freundin von meiner Schwester.
Greta is a friend of my sister.
Hier ist ein Buch von Günter Grass.
Here's a book by Günter Grass.
zu to, at
Ich bin zu Weihnachten zu Hause.
I am at home at Christmas.
Komm zu mir. Come to me.
243
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D.Genitive prepositions(an)statt, innerhalb, außerhalb, trotz, während,
wegen
An Insight
These prepositions are followed by the genitive.
For most of them, the definition includes the idea
"of," which we associate with the genitive
anstatt instead of (often shortened just to
"statt")
Anstatt des Bieres habe ich Wein bestellt.
Instead of beer, I ordered wine.
trotz in spite of
Trotz des Wetters war der Urlaub schön.
In spite of the weather, the vacation was nice.
während during, in the course of
Wir besuchen euch während der Ferien.
We're visiting you during the holidays.
wegen because of
Das Haus gefällt uns wegen seiner guten Lage.
We like the house because of its good location.
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innerhalb inside of, within
Innerhalb der Stadt gibt es vier Universitäten.
Within the city there are four universities.
außerhalb outside of
Außerhalb seines Landes ist der Sänger nicht
wohl-bekannt.
Outside of his country, the singer is not wellknown.
245
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CHAPTER 61
THE ADJECTIVES
Adjectives in German as well as in English
describe or modify nouns, but in German they
should agree in gender and number with the
noun they modify. Adjectives forms vary
depending on the case (nominative, accusative,
dative and genitive).
Note how adjectives take an extra ―e‖ when
they‘re placed before nouns and a definite
article is placed before them in the nominative:
German Adjectives
Masculine: (schnell’usy/ fast): der
schnelle’usys Tiger (the fast tiger).
Feminine: (jung;qUx/ young): die
junge Dame;qUxs Mkes (the young lady).
Neuter: (klugDywx/ smart): das kluge
KindMkl Dywxs fdaM (the smart child).
Plural: (gut/ good): sie sind gute
BücherxwVs C;w’kj (they‘re good books).
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For all the rest of the cases (accusative, dative
and genitive) adjectives ending take ―en‖ in the
masculine, and ―e‖ in the feminine and neuter.
Accusative: Ich habe den schnellen Tiger
gesehen (I have seen the fast tiger), Ich habe die
junge Dame gesehen. (I have seen the young
lady).
The same thing happens with dative and genitive
where the adjective take ―en‖ in the masculine,
and ―e‖ in the feminine/ neuter/plural.
Remember that this happens only when we add
a definite article der, die, das (the) or the
pronouns dieser (this), jener (that), solcher
(such), jeder (each), welcher (which).
The plural ending for these weak adjectives is
―en‖ in ALL cases (nominative, accusative,
dative, and genitive), which is good news.
Ich habe die schnellen Katzen gesehen (I have
seen the fast cats).
Ich habe die jungen Damen gesehen (I have seen
the young ladies).
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Adjectives proceeded by the indefinite articles
(ein/ eine/ ein) or the pronouns such as mein
(my, mine), sein (his)… kein (no) have an
irregular declension:
Adjetives in German
singular
masculine
feminine
nominative ein guter eine schöne
Mann
Rose
eine schöne
accusative einen
guten
Rose
Mann
einem
einer schönen
dative
guten
Rose
Mann
eines
einer schönen
genitive
guten
Rose
Mannes
248
neuter
ein altes
Buch
ein altes
Buch
einem alten
Buch
eines alten
Buches
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The plural endings for strong adjectives are the
same for all three genders:
Plural adjectives
keine guten Männer
nominative
keine guten Männer
accusative
keinen guten Männern
dative
keiner guten Männer
genitive
Following is a list of some common
adjectives in German, they‘re in their original
form, so they‘re not yet influenced by any other
cases like (accusative, dative, and genitive), so
take that into consideration when you put these
adjectives in a non nominative case.
For example: Er ist schnell (he is fast). (but) Er
ist ein schneller Mann.(note how in the first
setences the adjective schnell wasn‘t influenced
by anything and therefore stayed in its original
form, but in the second example ―ein‖ made it
take ―er‖ at the end). The same thing may occur
to the adjectives following:
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ambitious
American
annoying
bad
beautiful
big, large
blonde
boring
brave
careless
cautious
certain
charming
cheerful
Chinese
conceited
conventional
coward
crazy, nuts
cruel
difficult
disagreeable
dull, boring
easy
English
ehrgeizig
Amerikaner
ärgerlich
schlecht
schön
groß
blondine
langweilig
tapfer
unbesonnen
vorsichtig
bestimmt
charmant
fröhlich
Chinesisch
eingebildet
herkömmlich
feigling
verrückt, Nüsse
grausam
schwierig
unangenehm
dumm, langweilig
leicht
Englisch
250
,jxkbft’k
vkesfjdkuj
,jxsfyZ’k
’ys‚V
’;ksu
xzksl
Cyksafnu
Ykakxokbfy’k
VkQj
mucstk+ susu
Q+ksft+Zf‚V’k
fcf’VEV
‚kkekZUV
Z¶z;ksfy’k
f‚kusft+‚k
vkbuxsfcYMsV
gsjD;ksfEy‚k
Q+kbfXyax
Q+s#DV] U;wls
Xkzkmt+ke
’ohfj‚k
muvkUxsuse
Mwe] ykaxokbfy‚k
Ykkb‚V
,afXy’k
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mus‚V
Q+sV
osuhxs] vkbu
few, a little
wenige, ein wenig osfu‚k
Qzk¡RL;ksft+’k
French
Französisch
g~;ksfQ+’k
frequent
häufig
Qz+kW;fUMfy’k
friendly
freundlich
yqf‚V‚k]
fun, amusing lustig, amüsant vkE;wt+kUV
dksfe‚k
funny
Komisch
tsusjky
general
General
xzkslT+;wfx‚k
generous
großzügig
MkWbp
German
Deutsch
xwV
good
gut
g~;wC’k
handsome
hübsch
¶ykbfl’k
hard-working fleißig
gkW‚k
high, tall
hoch
,gfyZ‚k
honest
ehrlich
,aUVsyhxsUV
intelligent
intelligent
,aUVsjslkUV
interesting
interessant
vkVZ
kind
Art
,aV’ikusUM
laid-back
entspannend
Q+kmy
lazy
faul
osfu’k] Dykmu
little, small
wenig, klein
uhfMª’k] dwRlZ
low, short
niedrig, kurz
fake
fat
unecht
Fett
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mean
modest
moody
naive
narrowminded
new
nice (person)
old
perfect
personal
pious
polite
poor
possible
pretty
proud
rapid, fast
realistic
recent
reliable
rich
sad
selfish
sensitive
shy
niedrig
bescheiden
launisch
naiv
engstirnig
neu
nett
alt
vollkommen
Persönlicher
fromm
höflich
schlecht
möglich
ziemlich
stolz
schnell
realistisch
neu
zuverlässig
reich
jämmerlich
egoistisch
empfindlich
schüchtern
252
uhfMª’k
cs’kkbMsu
Ykksfu’k
Ukkbo
,axf’VfuZ’k
U;w
usV
vkYV
Q+ksYdksesu
isj’;ksuyh’ksj
QzkWEe
g~;ksQ+fy’k
’ys‚V
E;ksfXy’k
t+hfEy’k
’VkWYRl
’usy
fj;fyf‚V’k
U;w
RL;wQs+ysZfl’k
jkb‚k
;SefyZ’k
,Xokbf‚V’k
,fEQaMfy’k
’;w‚kVuZ
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silly, dumb
skinny
slender, slim
slow
small
Spanish
strict
strong
stubborn
talkative
trustworthy
ugly
various
weak
weird
white
young
Mwe]’Vwe
dumm, stumm
M~;wu
dünn
’ykad
schlank
Ykkaxt+e
langsam
Dykbu
klein
’ikfu’k
Spanisch
’VªsUx
streng
’VkdZ
stark
’V~;ksfj’k
störrisch
xs’izsf‚k’k
gesprächig
vertrauenswürdig Q+sjVªkm,UlO;wfM’k
gslfy’k
hässlich
Q+s’khZMsu
verschieden
’ok‚k
schwach
mUgkbefy‚k
unheimlich
Okbl
weiß
;qax
jung
253
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CHAPTER 62
THE CONJUNCTIONS
There are two types of conjunctions,
coordinating and subordinating.
A. Coordinating Conjunctions
1. Coordinating
conjunctions
coordinate
clauses of the same type (two or more main
clauses or two or more dependent clauses).
2. denn, aber, sondern are normally preceded
by a comma, and followed by subject and
then the verb.
3. Other than that there is no special wordorder rule; the basic rules are applied.
The most common coordinating conjunctions
are:
undmUM
odervksMj
dennMsu
abervkcj
sondern t+ksUMuZ
and
or
for, because
but
but (instead)
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example
1. Wir kommen nicht heute, sondern morgen.
2. Machst du das oder machst du das nicht?
3. Er hat mir gesagt, daß er Savannah besucht
hat und dort zu River Street gegangen ist.
This example shows the coordination of
subordinate (dependent) clauses: und
coordinates the two dependent clauses; the
auxiliary verbs (hat, ist) are at the end of the
respective clause. Both clauses are
dependent on the main clause; daß applies to
both.
B. Subordinating Conjunctions
1. Subordinating conjunctions introduce a
subordinate (dependent) clause.
2. A dependent clause is one that requires an
independent (main) clause to be fully
understood.
3. The conjugated verb is at the end of the
dependent clause.
4. A comma separates main and dependent
clauses.
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5. The dependent clause may be the first clause
in a structure.
The most common subordinating conjunctions
are:
daßMkl
wennosu
weilokby
sobaldt+ksckYM
bisfcl
bevorcsQ+ksj
nachdemuk[kMse
alsvkYl
daMk
seit/[email protected]+kbVMse
damitMkfeV
obvksc
obwohlvkscoksy
so daßt+ks Mkl
solanget+ksykax
während osgjs.M
that
when
because
as soon as
until
before
after
when
because, since [conditional]
since [temporal]
so that
whether, if
although
so that, as a result
as long as
while, during
Example1. Ich warte, bis du zu mir kommst.
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2. Sobald du hier bist, essen wir.
3. Rudi sprach, während der Professor etwas
erklärte.
4. Andrea ist gekommen, obwohl sie krank
war.
Notes
1. All question words (wer, wie, wo, was,
wann, warum, etc., including wocompounds) can function like subordinating
conjunctions, introducing indirect questions.
o Direct question: Wer ist das dort?
o ==> Indirect question: Weißt du, wer
das dort ist?
2. Sometimes, daß can be omitted. In this case,
the finite verb does not move to the end.
o Ich weiß, daß du das gemacht hast.
o Ich weiß, du hast es gemacht.
3. In a dependent clause, the conjugated (finite)
verb is at the end EXCEPT for one
circumstance: when modal verbs are present
in a "perfect" tense. You will not see this
very often, but you should be able to identify
this as correct construction.
o Peter wußte, daß er zur Klasse hat
kommen
sollen.
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(Peter knew that you should have come
to class [...was supposed to come to
class]).
4. Sometimes, comparisons using als or wie
are placed after the finite verb.
o Sie dachte, daß sie nicht so schön ist
wie ihre Schwester.
OR: Sie dachte, daß sie nicht so schön
wie ihre Schwester ist.
(She thought [that] she is not as
attractive as her sister.)
o Aber sie wußte, daß sie intelligenter ist
als sie.
OR: Aber sie wußte, daß sie
intelligenter als sie ist.
(But she knew [that] she was smarter
than her).
258
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CHAPTER 63
THE PASSIVE VOICE
The passive voice is used much less in German
than in English. But it is used, and Germanlearners should know something about the use of
verbs in the active and passive voice. The
passive voice is most often encountered in
writing (as in this very sentence), in the
newspaper and in literature. Observe the
following examples in German and English:
ACTIVE/AKTIV
Ich schreibe den Brief. b‚k Jkbcs Msu czhQ+
I'm writing the letter.
PASSIVE/PASSIV
Der Brief wird von mir geschrieben.
Msj czhQ+ foMZ Q+kWu ehj xsJkbcsu
The letter is being written by me.
Note in the examples above...
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1. To form the passive, German uses
werden (to become) + the past participle,
while English uses "to be."
2. The word "letter" (Brief) in the ACTIVE
sentence is an object being acted upon
(active) by the subject "I" (ich). In the
PASSIVE sentence the former object
(Brief) becomes the subject, while the
former subject (I, ich) is now the agent
(by me/von mir).
3. Only transitive verbs (those that take a
direct object) can be made passive. The
direct object (accusative case) in the
active voice becomes the subject
(nominative case) in the passive voice.
Active and passive voice forms are not tenses.
The active or passive voice can be in the present,
past, future or any other tense. To conjugate
verbs in the passive voice, you must know the
forms of werden. A passive voice sentence may
or may not include the "agent" (by whom
something was done). If the agent (by me, by
Anna) is a person, it is expressed in German with
a von-phrase: von Anna (by Anna). If the agent
is not a person, then a durch-phrase is used:
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durch den Wind (by the wind). Here are some
more examples, with and without the agent
expressed:
ACTIVE/AKTIV
Der Sturm hat das Haus zerstört.
The wind storm destroyed the building.
PASSIVE/PASSIV (no agent expressed)
Das Haus ist zerstört worden.
The building was destroyed.
PASSIVE/PASSIV (agent expressed)
Das Haus ist durch den Sturm zerstört
worden.
The building was destroyed by the wind storm.
"FALSE PASSIVE" (predicate adjective)
Das Haus ist zerstört.
The building is destroyed.
Das Haus war zerstört.
The building was destroyed
Note in the examples above...
1. Except for the last "false passive"
example, all the ACTIVE and PASSIVE
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sentences are in the same tense (present
perfect/Perfekt).
2. The ACTIVE verb form "hat zerstört"
changes to "ist zerstört worden" in the
PASSIVE.
3. Although the normal past participle of
"werden" is "(ist) geworden," when the
past participle is used with another verb,
it becomes "ist (zerstört) worden."
4. If the ACTIVE sentence contains a past
participle (i.e., "zerstört"), it will also
appear, unchanged, in the PASSIVE
sentence with "worden."
5. The agent (der Sturm) is not a person, so
the PASSIVE voice sentence uses durch
to express "by" — rather than von. (Note:
In everyday German, this rule is often
ignored by native-speakers who may also
use von for impersonal agents.)
6. The preposition von is always dative,
while durch is always accusative.
7. The "false passive" example is NOT in
the passive voice. The past participle
"zerstört" is only being used as a
predicate adjective, describing the
condition of the building ("destroyed").
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The Passive Voice
in Various Tenses
English
Deutsch
The letter is (being)
Der Brief wird von mir
written by me.
geschrieben.
The letter was written Der Brief wurde von
by me.
mir geschrieben.
The letter has been
Der Brief ist von mir
written by me.
geschrieben worden.
The letter had been
Der Brief war von mir
written by me.
geschrieben worden.
The letter will be
Der Brief wird von mir
written by me.
geschrieben werden.
The letter will have
Der Brief wird von mir
been written by me.
geschrieben worden
sein.
The passive voice is used more frequently in
written German than in spoken German. German
also uses several active-voice substitutes for the
passive voice. One of the most common is the
use of man: Hier spricht man Deutsch. =
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German (is) spoken here. - Man sagt... = It is
said... When a man-expression is put into the
passive, the agent is not expressed, because man
(one, they) is no one in particular. Following are
more examples of passive substitutes in German.
Passive Voice Substitutes
Examples/Beispiele
AKTIV
PASSIV
Hier raucht man nicht. Hier wird nicht
One doesn't smoke here. geraucht.
There's no smoking
here.
Man reißt die Straßen Die Straßen werden
auf.
aufgerissen.
They're tearing up the The streets are being
streets.
torn up.
Man kann es beweisen. Es kann bewiesen
One can prove it.
werden.
It can be proved.
Man erklärte mir gar
Gar nichts wurde mir
nichts.
erklärt.
Mir erklärte man gar
Es wurde mir gar nichts
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nichts.
No one explained a
thing to me.
erklärt.
Mir wurde gar nichts
erklärt.
Nothing at all was
explained to me.
Notice: (1) The emphasis may be changed by
placing different words first. (2) An indirect
object (dative) pronoun (mir in the last example)
remains dative in either the active or passive
voice. (3) In impersonal passive statements, es is
often omitted, as in the last set of examples.
265
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CHAPTER 64
A DIALOGUE IN A
RESTAURANT
Arriving and being seated
After you arrive at a restaurant, you want
to take your seat, Platz nehmen IykRl usesu,
and get your Speisekarte ‘ikbt+sdkVZs (menu).
A waiter, der Kellner Msj dsYuj, directs you
to your table.
Placing your order
As in English, you use a variety of
common expressions to order your food.
Luckily, they aren't too complicated, and
you can use them both for ordering
anything from food to drinks and for
buying food at a store:


Ich hätte gern . . . b‛k gkVs xsuZ (I would
like to have . . .)
Für mich bitte . . . ¶;wj fe‛k fcVs (For me . .
. please)
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
Ich möchte gern . . . b‛k E;ks‛Vs xsuZ (I would
like to have . . .)
When ordering, you may decide to be
adventurous and ask the waiter
Können Sie etwas empfehlen? D;ksusu t+h
,V~okl ,EQ+sysu\ (Can you recommend
something?)
Be prepared for him or her to respond at a
rapid-fire pace, naming dishes you may
have never heard of before. To avoid any
confusion with the waiter's response, try
holding out your menu for the waiter to
point at while responding.
Ordering something special
You may need the following phrases to
order something a little out-of-theordinary:

Haben Sie vegetarische Gerichte? gkcsu
t+h osxsVkjh’ks xsjh‛Vs\ (Do you have vegetarian
dishes?)
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
Ich kann nichts essen, was . . . enthält
b‛k dku fu‛V ,lsu] okl-----,uFksYV (I can't eat
anything that contains . . .)

Haben Sie Gerichte für Diabetiker?
gkcsu t+h xsjh‛Vs ¶+;jw fM;kcsfVdj\ (Do you have
dishes for diabetics?)

Haben Sie Kinderportionen? gkcsu t+h
fdUMj iksf’kZ;ksusu\ (Do you have children's
portions?)
Replying to "How did you like the
food?"
After a meal, it's traditional for the waiter
or waitress to ask if you liked the food:
Hat es Ihnen geschmeckt? gkV ,l busu
xs’kesDV\ (Did you like the food?)
Hopefully, you enjoyed your meal and feel
compelled to answer that question with one
of the following:

danke, gut MkUds xwV (thanks, good)

sehr gut t+sj xwV (very good)
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
ausgezeichnet vkmlxsRlkb’kusV (excellent)
Getting the bill
At the end of your meal, your waiter may
ask you the following as a way to bring
your meal to a close and to find out if you
are ready for the bill:
Sonst noch etwas? t+ksULV uk‛k ,V~okl\
(Anything else?)
Unless you'd like to order something else,
it's time to pay die Rechnung Mh js’uwax (the
bill). You can ask for the bill in the
following ways:


Ich möchte bezahlen. b‛k E;ks‛Vs csRlkysu (I
would like to pay.)
Die Rechnung, bitte. Mh js’uwax fcVs (The
bill, please.)
You can pay together — Alles zusammen,
bitte. vkysl Rlwt+kesu fcVs (Everything
together, please.) — or separately — Wir
möchten getrennt zahlen. ohj E;ks‛Vs xsVªkUV
Rlkysu (We would like to pay separately.).
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CHAPTER 65
A DIALOGUE IN A HOTEL
HOTEL
These phrases are intended for use at the hotel
desk.
Do you have a room for tonight?
Haben Sie ein Zimmer für heute nacht?
gkcsu t+h vkbu fRlej ¶+;wj vks;Vs uk[V\
I booked a room in the name of...
Ich habe ein Zimmer auf den Namen ... reserviert
b‛k gkcs vkbu fRlej vkmQ+ Msu ukesu------jstsohZVZ
I'd like to see the room
Ich möchte das Zimmer gerne ansehen
b‛k E;ks‛Vs Mkl fRlej xsuZ vkut+sgsu
Have you another?
Haben Sie noch ein anderes?
gkcsu t+h ukW[k vkbu vkUMsjsl\
Where can I park the car?
Wo kann ich mein Auto parken?
oks dku b‛k ekbu vkmVks ikdsZu\
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What time is...?
Wann gibt es...?
oku fxCV ,l-----\
dinner (evening)
Abendessen
vkcsUM ,lsu
breakfast
Frühstück
Qz’w Vwd
We'll be back late tonight
Wir kommen heute abend spät zurück
ohj dkWesu gks;Vs vkcsUM ‘isV Rlw:d
The key, please
Room number...
Den Schlüssel, bitte
Zimmer (number)...
Msu ‘ywlsy] fcVs
fRlej------uwEcj
Are there any messages for me?
Sind Nachrichten für mich da?
ft+UM uk[kfj’Vsu ¶;wj fe’k Mk\
I'm leaving
tomorrow
Ich reise morgen
ab
b’k jkbts+s ekWxsZu vc
Please prepare the bill
Machen Sie bitte die
Rechnung fertig
Ekk[ksu t+h fcVs Mh js’uwax Q+sVhZ’k
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CHAPTER 66
A DIALOGUE ON SHOPPING
Dialogue
How do I get to the main shopping area?
Wie komme ich zum Hauptgeschäftszentrum?
oh dkWe b‛k Rlwe
gksIVxs’ks¶V~lRlsUVªwe\
I'm looking for
my mother
a child
a present for...
Ich suche ein
meine Mutter ein Kind
Geschenk für...
b‛k t+[w ks vkbu xs’ksUd ¶;wj--- Ekkbus ewVj
vkbu fdUV
Where can I/we buy
toys
clothes
good...?
Wo kann man gut ...
Spielzeuge Kleidung
kaufen?
Okks dku eku xwV----dkmQ+su\
‘ihyRL;wxs DykbMwax
Can you recommend any good shops?
Können Sie ein paar Geschäfte empfehlen?
D;ksusu t+h vkbu ikj xs’ks¶Vs ,EQ+sysu\
Which floor are shoes on?
Auf welchem Stockwerk sind die Schuhe?
vkmQ osY‛kse ‘VkWdosdZ ft+UM Mh ‘kwgs\
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I'd like something similar to this
Ich möchte etwas Ähnliches wie dies
b‛k E;ks‛Vs ,V~okl ,Uyh‛ksl oh Mht+
It's too expensive for Have you anything else?
me
Das ist mir zu teuer Haben Sie noch etwas
anderes?
Mkl bLV ehj Rlw Vks;j gkcsu t+h ukW[k ,V~okl ,aMjsl\
Is there a market?
When?
Gibt es hier einen Markt?
Wann?
xhCV ,l ghj vkbusu ekDVZ\
Okku\
Kann ich Ihnen
helfen?
dku b‛k busu gsYQ+su\
Can I help you?
Darf es sonst noch etwas
sein?
MkQZ ,l t+ksULV ukW[k ,V~okl t+kbu\
Would you like anything
else?
273
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CHAPTER 67
ASKING FOR DIRECTION
Step1
Learn the key question word "Wo"oks which
means "where." Most direction questions start
with "Wo ist" oks bLVwhich means "where is" and
then follows with the place you want to visit.
Step2
Put simple sentences together using the word
"Wo" as in "Wo ist die Toilette bitte?" oks bLV Mh
VkW;ysV fcVs\ which means "where is the toilet?"
This is an important question to learn especially
if you are in a hurry to find a washroom.
Step3
Make sure you add the word "Bitte" fcVs to all
your questions. It means please; politeness is
very important when you are asking someone to
help you. Make sure you say "Danke" MkUdswhen
you receive your answer. "Danke" means thank
you.
Step4
Remember to learn the direction words "Links,"
"Rechts" and "Gerade aus." These words
represent the answers people will give you when
you are asking for directions. "Links" fyaDl
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means left; "Rechts" js‛V~lmeans right and
"Gerade aus" xsjkM vkmlmeans straight ahead.
Step5
Learn more precise direction words like "Dort
druben" MkWVZ Mªwcsu which means over there, "da" Mk
for just there, "Gegen" xsxsufor towards and
"Durch" Mw’kZfor through.
Step6
Know the key words for the places you want to
find like "der Flughafen" Msj ¶ywxkQ+su for airport,
"der Bahnhof" Msj ckugkWQ+for train station, "der
Autobus" Msj vkmVkscl
w for bus, "das Hotel" Mkl
gksVy
s
for hotel and "ein Restaurant" vkbu
jsLVkvksjkUV for restaurant. Place these words after
"Wo ist" oks bLVto find a specific location.
Step7
Try these simple sentences: "Entschuldigen sie
bitte. ,UV’kwyfMxsUt+h fcVsIch spreche nicht deutsch.
b‛k ‘izs‛ks fu‛V MkWbp Wo ist der Bahnhof bitte? oks bLV
Msj ckugkWQ"+ This translates to "Excuse me please. I
do not speak German. Where is the train station
please?"
275
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CHAPTER 68
A VISIT TO A DOCTOR
DOCTOR
krankenhaus dzkdsugkml
ambulanz vkEcwykaRl
hospital
out-patients
I need a doctor
My son / My daughter is ill
Ich brauche einen Mein Sohn / Meine Tochter
Arzt
ist krank
b‛k czkm[ks vkbusu
ekbu t+ksu @ ekbus Vks[Vj bLV
vkRlZ~V
dzkad
I have a pain here
He / She has a high
(point)
temperature
Ich habe Schmerzen
Er / Sie hat hohes Fieber
hier
b‛k gkcs ‘esRlsZu ghj
,[email protected]+h gkV gksgsl Q+hcj
I'm diabetic I'm pregnant
I'm on the pill
Ich habe
Ich bin
Ich nehme die
Zucker
schwanger
Pille
b‛k gkcs Rlwdj b‛k fcu ‘okUxj
b‛k uses Mh ihys
My blood group
I'm allergic to penicillin
is...
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Ich bin allergisch gegen
Meine Blutgruppe
Penizillin
ist...
Bb‛k fcu vkysjxh’k xsxsu
Ekkbus CywV xziw bLV---isufRlfyu
Will he / she have to go to hospital?
Muß er / sie ins Krankenhaus?
ewl ,[email protected] t+h bUl dzkadsugkml\
How much will it
cost?
Will I have to pay?
Muß ich gleich
Was wird es kosten?
bezahlen?
ewl b‛k Xykb’k csRlkysu\
okl foMZ ,l dkWLVsu\
I need a receipt for the insuranceIch brauche
eine Quittung für meineVersicherung
b‛k czkm‛ks vkbus dhVqax ¶;wj ekbus Q+sft’ks:ax
Sie müssen ins Krankenhaus
t+h E;wlsu bUl dzkadsugkml
You will have to go to hospital
Ich muß Sie röntgen
b‛k ewl t+h :VaxsuI'll have to give you an X-ray
277
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CHAPTER 69
A TELEPHONIC
CONVERSATION
When German speakers pick up das
Telefon Mkl VsysQ+ksu (phone), they usually
answer the call by stating their last name
— particularly when they are at their
office. If you call somebody at home, you
sometimes might hear a simple Hallo? gkyks
(Hello?).
If you want to express that you're going to
call somebody or that you want somebody
to call you, you use the verb anrufen
vu:Q+su. It is a separable verb, so the prefix
anvu gets seperated from the stem rufen
:Q+su (to call), when you conjugate it:
Conjugation
Pronunciation
ich rufe an
b‛k :Q+s vu
du rufst an
M~;s :¶LV vu
Sie rufen an
Tk+h :Q+su vu
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er, sie, es ruft an ,j]th],l :¶V vu
wir rufen an
ohj :Q+su vu
ihr ruft an
bj :¶V vu
Sie rufen an
th :Q+su vu
sie rufen an
Tkh :Q+su vu
As in English, you have quite a few
options when it comes to expressing that
you want to speak with somebody:




Ich möchte gern Herrn / Frau . . .
sprechen. b‛k E;ks‛Vs xsuZ [email protected]Ýkvks-----‘izs‛ksu (I
would like to talk to Mr. / Mrs. . . .)
Ist Herr / Frau . . . zu sprechen? b‛k
[email protected]Ýkvks----Rlw ‘izs‛ksu\ (Is Mr. / Mrs. . . .
available?)
Kann ich bitte mit Herrn / Frau . . .
sprechen? dku b‛k fcVs feV [email protected]
Z Ýkvks----‘izs‛ksu\ (Can I speak to Mr. / Mrs. . . . ,
please?)
Herrn / Frau . . . , bitte. [email protected] Ýkvks--]fcVs(Mr./Mrs. . . . , please.)
279
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If you find that somebody talks too fast for
you to understand, you can ask the person:

Können Sie bitte langsamer sprechen?
D;ksusu t+h fcVs ykaxt+kej ‘izs‛ksu\(Could you
please talk more slowly?)

Können Sie das bitte wiederholen?
D;ksusu t+h Mkl fcVs ohMjgksysu\(Could you
repeat that, please?)
After you've asked to speak to a specific
person, you could hear any number of
responses depending on who you're calling
and where they are:



Am Apparat. ve vikjkV (Speaking.)
Einen Moment bitte, ich verbinde.
vkbusu ewesav fcVs] b‛k Q+sjfcUMs (One moment
please, I'll put you through.)
Er / sie telefoniert gerade. ,[email protected]+h
VsyhQ+ksfu;sVZ xsjkMs (He / she is on the phone
right now.)
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



Die Leitung ist besetzt. Mh ykbVqax bLV
csts+V~l (The line is busy.)
Können Sie später noch einmal
anrufen? D;ksusu t+h ‘isVj ukW[k vkbueky
vu:Q+su\(Could you call again later?)
Kann er / sie Sie zurückrufen? dku
,[email protected]+h t+h Rlw:d:Q+su\ (Can he / she call
you back?)
Hat er / sie Ihre Telefonnummer? gkV
,[email protected]+h bZjs VsyhQ+ksuU;wej\(Does he / she have
your phone number?)
Here are some expressions that might be
helpful if something goes wrong with your
connection:


Es tut mir leid. Ich habe mich
verwählt. ,l VwV ehj ykbM- b‛k gkcs fe‛k
Q+sjosYV (I'm sorry. I have dialed the wrong
number.)
Ich kann Sie schlecht verstehen. b‛k dku
t+h ‘ys‛V Q+s’kZVsgsu (I can't hear you very
well.)
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
Er / sie meldet sich nicht. ,[email protected]+h esYMsV
ft+‛k fu‛V (He / she doesn't answer the
phone.)
Saying goodbye on the phone
Does auf Wiederhören! vkmQ+ohMjg~;ksjsu
somehow sound familiar? It is the phone
equivalent
to
auf
Wiedersehen
vkmQ+ohMjt+sgsu, the expression you use if you
say good-bye to somebody you've just seen
in person. Auf Wiedersehen combines
wieder ohMj(again) with the verb sehen
t+sgsu (to see), and auf Wiederhören uses
the verb hören g~;ksjsu (to hear), so it
literally means "hear you again."
A Telephonic Conversation exampleThe following is a conversation between
Frau Bauer, the secretary of Herr Huber,
and Herr Meißner, a potential client of the
company.
Frau Bauer: Firma TransEuropa,
Bauer. Guten Morgen! Q+ekZ Vªk¡l;wjksik]
ckmvj- xwVsu ekWxsZu (TransEuropa company,
Bauer speaking. Good morning!)
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Herr Meißner: Guten Morgen! Herrn
Huber, bitte. xwVsu ekWxsZu gsuZ g~;cw j
fcVs(Good morning. Mr. Huber, please.)
Frau Bauer: Tut mir leid. Herr Huber
ist in einer Besprechung. Kann er Sie
zurückrufen? VwV ehj ykbM- gsj g~;cw j bLV
bu vkbusj cs’izs’kqax- dku ,j t+h Rlw:d:Q+su\(I'm
sorry. Mr. Huber is in a meeting. Can he
call you back?)
Herr Meißner: Selbstverständlich.
t+sYCLVQ+sj’VsUMfy’k(Of course.)
Frau Bauer: Wie ist noch einmal Ihr
Name? oh bLV ukW[k vkbueky bZj uke\ (What
is your name again?)
Herr Meißner: Meißner, mit ß. Ekkbluj
feV ,lsV (Meißner, with ß.)
Frau Bauer: Gut, Herr Meißner. xwV gsj
ekbluj(Good, Mr. Meißner.)
Herr Meißner: Vielen Dank. Auf
Wiederhören! Q+hysu Mkad vkmQohMj g~;ksjsu
(Thanks a lot. Good bye.)
283
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CHAPTER 70
LETTER WRITING
Here are few important expressions and
phrases used in a letter:
28 May 2008.
28 Mai 2008
Dear Sir / Madam
Sehr geehrte Damen und
Herren (Sie)
Dear Mr...
Dear Mrs...
Sehr geehrter Herr.... (Sie)
Sehr geehrte Frau.... (Sie)
Dear Christian
Dear Petra
Lieber Christian
Liebe Petra
Dear ...
Lieber / Liebe... (du)
Further to your letter of 7 May...
Mit Bezug auf Ihr Schreiben vom 7. Mai...
Further to our telephone conversation...
Im Anschluß an unser Telefongespräch...
Please find enclosed...
In der Anlage finden Sie...
284
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Thank you for the information / for your price
list
Vielen Dank für die Information / für Ihre
Preisliste
I look forward to hearing from you soon
Ich freue mich auf Ihre baldige Antwort
by return [of] post
postwendend
Best regards
Mit besten Grüßen
Love
Mit herzlichen Grüßen
Yours faithfully
Mit freundlichen Grüßen
Yours sincerely
Mit freundlichen Grüßen
285
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APPENDIX-A
PRACTICE EXERCISES
Ich ___ gern Tennis.
spielen
spielt
spiele
2. Karl __ mir den Ball.
gebt
gibt
geben
3. Ihr ___ fast jeden Tag.
arbeitet
arbeite
arbeiten
4. ___ Karla Deutsch?
Sprichst
Sprecht
Spricht
5. Wann ___ Karl und Julia? Heute?
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kommen
kommt
komme
6. Wo ___ du jetzt?
wohnt
wohne
wohnst
7. Wann ___ wir? Um zwei Uhr?
gehen
geht
gehe
8. Wie ___ Sie?
heißt
heißen
heiße
9. Ich ___ keine Briefe mehr. Nur E-Mails.
schreiben
schreibt
schreibe
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10. ___ ihr das Alphabet?
Lernen
Lernt
Lernst
Correct answers are in bold type.
1. Ich spiele gern Tennis.
I like to play tennis.
- Always an -e ending for "ich" - with regular
verbs
2. Karl gibt mir den Ball.
Karl's giving me the ball.
- (stem-changing verb) gebt = ihr; geben = sie
(they), Sie (you, formal), wir
3. Ihr arbeitet fast jeden Tag.
You (guys) work almost every day.
- arbeite = ich; arbeiten = plural (sie, Sie, wir)
4. Spricht Karla Deutsch?
Does Karla speak German?
- (stem-changing verb) Sprichst = du; Sprecht =
ihr
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5. Wann kommen Karl und Julia? Heute?
When are K. & J. (they) coming? Today?
- kommt = er/sie (3rd person singular); komme =
ich
6. Wo wohnst du jetzt?
Where do you live/reside now?
- (du verbs always have an -st ending) wohnt =
er/sie; wohne = ich
7. Wann gehen wir? Um zwei Uhr?
When are we going? (lit., "when go we?")
- geht = er/sie; gehe = ich
8. Wie heissen Sie?
What's your name?
- (Sie is capitalized, easy to spot; always an -en
ending) - heißt = er/sie; du; heiße - ich
9. Ich schreibe keine Briefe mehr. Nur E-Mails.
I don't write letters any more, just e-mail
(messages).
- schreiben = Sie, sie, wir; schreibt = er/sie
10. Lernt ihr das Alphabet?
Are you (guys) learning/studying the alphabet?
- Lernen = Sie/sie, wir; Lernst = du
289
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Present Perfect Quiz: Part A
For the infinitive indicated in parentheses,
write the correct past participle to form the
present perfect tense:
Spelling counts!
1. Ich habe einen neuen Anzug
2. Haben Sie Deutsch
. (kaufen)
? (sprechen)
3. Hans und Rolf haben zu viel
4. Wann hast du den Brief
5. Wie hat sie das
. (essen)
? (schreiben)
? (machen)
6. Nein, wir haben die Suppe noch nicht
(probieren)
7. Was hast du uns
? (bringen)
8. Er ist aus Berlin
. (kommen)
9. Was hat er gestern
? (sagen)
10. Sie sind oft nach Amerika
290
. (reisen)
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Present Perfect Quiz: Part B
Write the correct form of "haben" or "sein"
that goes with the past participle and the
sentence:
Capitalization and spelling count!
11. Ich
meinem Vater geholfen.
12. Herr und Frau Meier
gefahren.
13.
14. Du
nach Hong Kong
ihr uns dort gesehen?
damals in München geblieben.
15. Maria
Lehrerin geworden.
16. Wann
Marilyn Monroe gestorben?
17. Die Mädchen
Heidelberg gefahren.
18. Herr Meier
mit der Bahn nach
auf den Bus gewartet.
19. Ich
das Geld gefunden.
20. Wir
nach Hause gegangen.
291
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CORRECT ANSWERS are indicated in bold
print.
1. Ich habe einen neuen Anzug gekauft.
(I bought a new suit.)
KAUFEN is a weak verb with a "t" ending in
its past participle.
2. Haben Sie Deutsch gesprochen?
(Did you speak German?)
SPRECHEN is a strong verb with an "en"
ending in its past participle.
3. Hans und Rolf haben zu viel gegessen.
(Did you speak German?) ESSEN, strong
4. Wann hast du den Brief geschrieben?
(When did you write the letter?)
SCHREIBEN, strong, ei/ie pattern
5. Wie hat sie das gemacht?
(How did she do that?) MACHEN, weak
6. Nein, wir haben die Suppe noch nicht
probiert.
(No, we haven't tried the soup yet.)
PROBIEREN, weak -ieren verb
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7. Was hast du uns gebracht?
(What did you bring us?) BRINGEN, mixed
verb
8. Er ist aus Berlin gekommen.
(He came from Berlin.) KOMMEN, strong,
takes sein
9. Was hat er gestern gesagt?
(What did he say yesterday?) SAGEN, weak
10. Sie sind oft nach Amerika gereist.
(They often traveled to America.) REISEN,
weak, takes sein
Part B
11. Ich habe meinem Vater geholfen.
(I helped my father. / I was helping my
father.)
12. Herr und Frau Meier sind nach Hong Kong
gefahren.
(Mr. and Mrs. Meier went/traveled to Hong
Kong.) - change of location
293
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13. Habt ihr uns dort gesehen?
(Did you guys see us there?)
14. Du bist damals in München geblieben.
(You stayed in Munich back then.) bleiben
always takes "sein"
15. Maria ist Lehrerin geworden.
(Maria became a teacher.) change of condition
16. Wann ist Marilyn Monroe gestorben?
(When did Marilyn Monroe die?) change of
condition
17. Die Mädchen sind mit der Bahn nach
Heidelberg gefahren.
(The girls went/traveled to Heidelberg by
train.) plural!, change of location
18. Herr Meier hat auf den Bus gewartet.
(Mr. Meier waited for the bus.)
19. Ich habe das Geld gefunden.
(I found the money.)
20. Wir sind nach Hause gegangen.
(We went home.) change of location
294
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APPENDIX-B
ALL TENSES AND SENTENCES
AT A GLANCE
I learn.
Ich lerne.
I am learning.
Ich lerne.
I have learnt.
Ich habe gelernt.
I have been learning. Ich habe gelernt.
I learnt.
Ich habe gelernt.
I was learning.
Ich lernte
I had learnt.
Ich hatte gelernt.
I had been learning. Ich hatte gelernt.
I will learn.
Ich werde lernen.
I will be learning.
Ich werde lernen.
I will have learnt.
Ich werde gelernt haben.
I will have been learning.Ich werde gelernt haben.
I can learn.
Ich kann lernen.
I could learnt.
Ich habe lernen können.
I could have learnt. Ich hatte lernen können.
I may learn.
Ich darf lernen.
I may have learnt.
Ich habe lernen dürfen.
I might learn.
Ich habe lernen dürfen.
I must learn.
Ich muss lernen.
I must have learnt.
Ich habe lernen müssen.
I should learn.
Ich soll lernen.
I should have learnt. Ich habe lernen sollen.
I have to learn.
Ich muss lernen.
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I had to learn.
I will have to learn.
I want to learn.
I wanted to learn.
I need to learn.
I needed to learn.
I would like to learn.
Learn.
Learn please.
Let us learn.
Ich habe lernen müssen.
Ich muss lernen.
Ich will lernen.
Ich habe lernen wollen.
Ich muss lernen.
Ich musste lernen .
Ich möchte lernen.
Lernt
Bitte lernen Sie.
Lernen wir!
296
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APPENDIX-C
PRACTICE LESSON
MEIN LAND INDIEN
Mein Land heißt Indien. Es ist ein großes Land
mit 26 Staaten. Jeder Staat hat seine eigene Kultur und
sprache aber trotzdem gibt es Einheit in unserem Land.
In Indien sind viele berühmte und gebildete
Menschen geboren, zum Beispiel Mahatma Gandhi,
Rabindranath Tagore, Jawaharlal Nehru usw.
In Indien, haben die Kinder gute Mannieren und
respektieren die alteren Leute. Viele Touristen
kommen nach Indien, weil sie die Landschaft von
Indien sehen wollen. Mein Land ist ein Land der
Götter, Flüsse und Temple . In meinem Land haben
wir viele Flüsse zum Beispiel Ganga, Yamuna, Kaveri,
usw. Viele Inder beten diese Flüsse und respekteiren
sie auch. Es gibt auch Götter zum Beispiel Lord
Krishna, die ganze Welt auch an betet.
Die Staate in meinem Land sid sehr schöne zum
Beispiel Jammu and Kashmir ist ein Himmel auf der
Erde. Im Süden haben wir auch viele Strände zum
Beispiel in Goa. Viele Touristen aus der Welt
besuchen Indien auch um historische Monumente wie
Taj Mahal, Qutub Minar, Jantar Mantar, Rote Fort zu
sehen. Wenn ein anderes Land Hilfe braucht, hilft
Indien immer gern. Ich bin stolz auf mein Land Indien.
Difficult words: staaten=states,jeder=every,eigen=own,kultur=culture,sprache=language,aber=but,
Trotzdem=inspite of that,einheit=unity,berühmts=famous,gebildete=educated,menschen=people,
Geboren=born,zum beispiel=for example,usw=etc.,Ältern=elders,leute=people,Landschaft=Land
Scape,Götter=God,Flüße=rivers,viele=many,Inder=indian,beten=to worship,ganz=entire,Welt=
-world,schön=beautiful,Himmel=sky,Erde=earth,Süden=south,Strande=beaches,besuchen=to visit,
historische=historical,andere=other,stolz=proud
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APPENDIX-D
‘REFERAT’
THE PRESENTATION ON GERMANY
After the world war East and West Germany
were divided. The modern world has seen the
unification of Germany and the fall of the Berlin
wall. The Unified Germany has many states with
extraordinary diversity of cultural life. Germany
is at the same time very old and very young too.
The following are the states and the their
capitals.
State
Baden-Wurttemberg
Bavaria
Berlin
Brandenburg
Bremen
Hamburg
Hesse
Lower Saxony
Mecklenburg-West Pomerania
North Rhine-Westphalia
Rhineland-Palatinate
Saarland
Saxony
Saxony-Anhalt
Schleswig-Holstein
Thuringia
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Capital
Stuttgart
Munich
Berlin
Potsdam
Bremen
Hamburg
Wiesbaden
Hanover
Schwerin
Dusseldorf
Mainz
Saarbrucken
Dresden
Magdeburg
Kiel
Erfurt
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The following are Germany‘s beautiful citiesBAMBERG
Bamberg, once an Imperial city, lies in the north of Bavaria and is listed
as UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.
BERLIN
After a fifty-year lull Berlin is back. World War II left behind a
crippled Berlin. Now Berlin is once more the capital of reunified
Germany and one of Europe's great cities.
COLOGNE
Cologne's a scenic city with plazas, shopping and nightlife and
well worth a visit especially during its famous Carnival
celebrations.
DRESDEN
Dresden is a city of contrasts. Next to beautiful vistas and
impressive sights one can find appalling. Partly, history is to be
blamed.
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FRANKFURT
Frankfurt am Main
Most people visit Frankfurt because they have to. Even many
inhabitants concede that taking a closer look might well be a
condition for falling in love with the city. But it has its vistas...
FREIBURG Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg is habitually associated with Black Forest region, its
traditional cherry-and-chocolate cake and cuckoo clocks. Although
you can find all this, Freiburg has a lot more to offer...
HAMBURG Hamburg
"Free and Hanseatic City" of Hamburg is Germany's second-largest
metropolis with one of Europe's biggest ports. Since the Middle Ages
Hamburg has been an important centre of commerce, part of an inter-citynetwork called Hanse.
HEIDELBERG
Heidelberg
Heidelberg's popularity is based on 3 pillars: its location, castle and university.
The beautiful old town with its sights and narrow, picturesque roads, is easily
accessible on foot.
LEIPZIG
Leipzig
Leipzig bears witness to many watersheds of history. Important
sights are the opera house, Gewandhaus orchestra, old city hall and
many more.
MUNICH
Munich
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Bavaria is proud on its uniqueness and is effectively a state within the
state following its own rules. Understandably, Munich does not lack
confidence either.
MÜNSTER Münster
Tourists and inhabitants alike enjoy the numerous shopping facilities and relax in
one of the various restaurants, coffeeshops and beergardens which shape the
Münster's face.
REGENSBURG
Bavarian city Regensburg is famous for the medieval architecture
of its well-preserved historic city centre, complete with narrow
streets and romantic squares...
STUTTGART
Best known as the home of Porsche and Mercedes-Benz, Stuttgart is
also one of Germany's major wine-growing regions and possibly
Germany's greenest city.
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Germany's castles and palaces are both great and
small, but many of them are full of art treasures, and all of them are
open to the public.

Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin is home to several museums and
staterooms that can be visited on guided tours.

Sanssouci, Frederick the Great's 18th-century rococo palace in
Potsdam, is remarkable, in part because it suffered almost no damage
during World War II. You can easily visit Sanssouci and its beautiful
grounds on a daytrip from Berlin.

Carefully reconstructed after WWII, the amazing Zwinger Palace in
Dresden is now an unparalleled showcase for old master paintings
and porcelain treasures.

Nymphenburg Palace on the outskirts of Munich is another kingsize showplace, and so is the gigantic Residenz, right in the heart of
the city. With their precious paintings, porcelains, and furniture, these
stately homes reveal aspects of German life and the monarchy that
lasted up until 1918.

For sheer, over-the-top opulence, nothing can compare to the fairytale castles built in the 19th century by Ludwig II of Bavaria.
Neuschwanstein and Linderhof are preserved almost exactly as they
were during Ludwig's lifetime.

Used by the powerful prince-bishops until 1806, the Residenz in
Würzburg is famed for its superb ceiling frescoes by Tiepolo.

A palace that doubled as a fortress, the Marienburg crowns the
vineyard-covered slopes above Würzburg and today houses the
Mainfränkische Museum, featuring brilliant Renaissance-era
woodcarvings by Tilman Riemenschneider.

Perched on its crag high above Heidelberg, Heidelbe rg Castle
suffered from war and fire, but it remains an impressive sight even in
its semiruined state.

For many visitors, the quintessential image associated with Germany
is a castle on a hilltop. You do, indeed, find castles scattered
throughout the country. Ruined castles dot the landscape of the Rhine
and enhance its romantic appeal.
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Landscapes of fabled beauty and scenic splendor are found throughout
Germany, and views of them are accessible by train, boat, and car. And at one
time, Germany was a conglomeration of regional kingdoms, duchies, and vast
estates, ruled over by an assortment of kings, dukes, princes, and princebishops. As a result, Germany is loaded with a fascinating collection of castles
and palaces.
From the majesty of the Bavarian Alps in the south to the sandy beaches of the
Baltic Sea in the north, and from the winegrowing Rhine Valley in the west to
the high, rocky cliffs along the Elbe in the east, Germany offers a wealth of
sightseeing possibilities.

From Dresden, you can easily explore a scenic region called Saxon
Switze rland, where rocky cliffs rise dramatically above the Elbe River.

The Romantic Road is the most romantic byway of all, offering a
remarkable medley of small medieval towns set within a gorgeous Bavarian
landscape of river valley and mountain meadow.

Perhaps the most dramatic of all German landscapes is the Bavarian Alps.
The country's highest mountain, the Zugspitze, towers above the alpine
resort town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

Sophisticated health spas and recreational activities abound in the forest-clad
mountains of the Black Forest, where you find lakes, hiking trails, and
scenic lookouts.

The Bodensee, an enormous lake near Germany's sunny southwestern
border, is like a bit of the Mediterranean, with semitropical gardens and an
almost Italian languor.

Cruises down the mighty River Rhine take you past castle-crowned crags
and legendary sights, such as Lorelei rock.

The Mosel Valley, between Trier and Koblenz, is a scenic winegrowing
region encompassing thousands of acres of vineyards, Roman ruins,
medieval castles, and riverside towns with cobbled streets and half- timbered
houses.
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