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Transcript
Perfect Passive Participles
Chapter 19
Perfect Passive Participle
• A first/second declension adjective
• No tricks!
• Formed by replacing the –um of the supine of
a verb with regular first/second declension
endings –us, -a, -um, et cetera.
The Su’whaty’pine??
• The supine of the verb can usually be found as
the….
• FOURTH PRINCIPAL PART!!
• Occultō, occultāre, occultāvī, occultātum
• Videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum
• Dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum
• Audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum
• Capiō, capere, cēpī, captum
Forming the Perfect Passive Participle
• Supine – um + (-us, a, um ending) =PPP
• Ex. Masculine
• Occultātum- um = Occultāt
Occultāt +masculine endings
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Occultātus
Occultātī
Genitive
Occultātī
Occultātōrum
Dative
Occultātō
Occultātīs
Accusative
Occultātum
Occultātōs
Ablative
Occultātō
Occultātīs
Occultāt + feminine endings
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Occultāta
Occultatae
Genitive
Occultātae
Occultatārum
Dative
Occultātae
Occultatīs
Accusative
Occultātam
Occultatās
Ablative
Occultātā
Occultatīs
Occultāt + neuter endings
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Occultātum
Occultata
Genitive
Occultātī
Occultatōrum
Dative
Occultātō
Occultatīs
Accusative
Occultātum
Occultata
Ablative
Occultātō
Occultatīs
You try with capiō, capere, cēpī,
captum, masculine
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Captus
Captī
Genitive
Captī
Captōrum
Dative
Captō
Captīs
Accusative
Captum
Captōs
Ablative
Captō
Captīs
You try with capiō, capere, cēpī,
captum, feminine
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Capta
Captae
Genitive
Captae
Captārum
Dative
Captae
Captīs
Accusative
Captam
Captās
Ablative
Captā
Captīs
You try with capiō, capere, cēpī,
captum, neuter
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Captum
Capta
Genitive
Captī
Captōrum
Dative
Captō
Captīs
Accusative
Captum
Capta
Ablative
Captō
Captīs
Participles
• Participles are forms of verbs used as
adjectives. Latin has four different participles,
which are used extensively because of their
ability to convey much meaning in little space.
English usually needs an entire clause to say
what a Latin participle can in one word.
Participles
• Verbal adjectives
– Adjectives because they match the noun they
Case
Number
modify in ___________,
__________,
and
Gender
____________.
Also can be used as substantives
and even as comparatives.
– Verbs because they have tense and voice
Participles
English
• Present Active
– Chewing
• Past Passive
– Chewed
Latin
• Two Active
– Present and Future
• Two Passive
– Perfect and Future
Tenses
• Tenses assigned to participles are not the
same as for regular verb forms. The tenses of
a participle are relative.
• Present participles show action happening at
the same time as the main verb.
• Perfect participles show action that happened
before the main verb.
• Future participles show action that will
happen after the main verb.
The Perfect Passive Participle
• Always refers to something that occurred
before the main verb.
• They are passive, so whatever they refer to
received the action rather than performed it.
• Allow Latin to express in a single word what
would require a phrase in English.
– Especially when used as a substantive
Easy-Mac Translation
• Use “having been” before the English past
participle
– Vīsus, vīsa, vīsum- having been seen, seen
– Vocātus, vocāta, vocātum- having been called,
called
– Aedificātus, aedificāta, aedificātum- having been
built, built
– Quaesītus, quaesīta, quaesītum- having been
sought, sought
Mīlitibus vocātīs praemia māgna
imperātor dabit.
Dabit is in the future. The ppp refers to some
time before the action of this future verb.
First the solider will be called, then the general
will give them the rewards.
To the soldiers having been called/ summoned
the general will give large rewards. (or) To the
called/ summoned soldiers the general will
give large rewards.
Vocātus ab imperātōre vēnit.
• Main verb is in the present tense. Vocātus
refers to a time even before vēnit i.e., first the
man was called by the general, then (obeying
the call) he came.
• Having been called by the general, he came.
(or) Called by the general, he came.
Homework
• Exercise 1 in your packet