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Transcript
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTES
1. MEMORIZE THE SOUND OF SOME EXAMPLES:
a. “Since the boy was angry” = puerō irātō
b. “When the army was destroyed” = exercitū delētō
“After the little boy had been thrown out the window”
= parvō puerō ē fenēstā iactō
c. “Although the consuls were skilled” = consūlibus
doctīs/perītīs
d. “If Caesar is dictator” = Caesare dictātōre
2. In Latin, ablative absolutes are clauses “loosely” related
(grammatically) to the rest of the sentence (i.e. the main
clause).
a. AT LEAST 2 WORDS, both ABLATIVE
i. WORD #1: Always a noun
ii. WORD #2: Always either a participle, second
noun or adjective
1. Participles are most common
2. The perfect passive participle is the most
common of all participles used this way
3. the verb “to be” is understood when the abl.
absolute consists of a noun and an adj. or
noun
b. Other words are okay too, and they don’t have to be
ablative if they need to be their own case based on
what is being said
i. OTHER WORDS MAY CONSIST OF:
1. an adjective describing Word #1
2. a genitive noun qualifying Word #1
3. a prepositional phrases contained therein
4. etc.
i
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTES
c. Latin doesn’t usually have a perfect active participle
the way English does
i. What is a perfect active participle? “Having
(verb)ed” e.g. “Having eaten the chicken” or
“Having killed the blah blah blah”
ii. Deponent verbs in Latin DO have a perfect active
participle because they’re crazy like that, but
most regular verbs have a perfect passive
participle only and not an active one.
1. locutus = “having spoken” (active)
2. dīctus = “having been spoken” (passive)
d. The ablative absolute is Latin’s way of conveying the
same information English would convey using a
perfect active participle:
i. ENGLISH: “Having eaten much food, the
children were now sleeping heavily.”
ii. LATIN: “With much food having been eaten, the
children were now sleeping heavily.”
3. Translated into English, ablative absolutes are
subordinate clauses that provide “background”
information. They:
a. set the temporal context (time) – “when...”
b. provide causal information (cause) “because/since....”
c. provide circumstantial information (condition)
“when....”
d. concede a point (concession) – “although/while...”
ii
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTES
4. The generic preposition “with” works to start the
translation of an ablative absolute in most cases!
a. “with the army destroyed” (cause)
b. “with Caesar being consul” (time/condition/cause)
c. “with the rain all dried up” (cause/condition)
5. The subject of the main clause is NOT denoted in the
Ablative Absolute.
Latin to English Examples:
1. puerō necātō, parentēs miserī erant.
2. epistulā mīssā, legātus ē patriā nōn discessit.
3. cōnsulēs Rōmānī, hostibus appropinquantibus, instruere
exercitum celeriter cōnstituērunt.
iii
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTES
Practice Sentences – Translate these sentences using an
ablative absolute in the appropriate places:
1. Once the road had been shown, we knew how to find the next
town.
2. If the teachers in his school are working diligently, you are
going to receive many challenges and important lessons.
3. Having eaten much food, the children were now sleeping
heavily.
4. Since my mother was disturbed, I decided to stay home for a
few hours to comfort her.
5. Although their houses were burned, many citizens were
hesitating to leave the town.
6. With your teachers and friends as allies, you will surely
overcome all obstacles!
7. When Cicero was consul, Catiline tried to attack the Republic
with his band of bad men.
iv
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTES
Practice Sentences – STUDENT ANSWERS:
1. Once the road had been shown, we knew how to find the next
town.
viā demonstrātā, scīvimus quōmōdō proximum oppidum
inveniāmus.
- quam = exclamatory “how” = “how big your teeth are,
Grandma!”
- the word “once” is implied in the translation of the ablative
absolute so ōlim is not necessary
2. If the teachers in his school are working diligently, you are
going to receive many challenges and important lessons.
magistrīs in eius lūdō laborantibus diligenter, difficultātēs
multās et gravia documenta recepturus es.
lesson = documentum, -ī, n.
challenge = difficultas, difficultātis, f.
recepturus es = active pariphrastic
3. Having eaten much food, the children were now sleeping
heavily.
esō multō cibō, liberī nunc graviter dormiēbant.
v
ABLATIVE ABSOLUTES
4. Since my mother was disturbed, I decided to stay home for a
few hours to comfort her.
matre meā sollicitatā, paucās horās ut consoler
eam manēre domī constitī
contains a purpose clause
domī is the locative
5. Although their houses were burned, many citizens were
hesitating to leave the town.
suīs domīs incensīs, multae/multī cīvēs dubitābant discedere
ex oppidō.
civitās, civitātis – city state, citizenry, citizenship
civis, civis, m./f. - citizen
6. With your teachers and friends as allies, you will surely
overcome all obstacles!
tuīs magistrīs et amīcīs (ut) sociīs, superābis certē omnia
impedimenta.
7. When Cicero was consul, Catiline tried to attack the Republic
with his band of bad men.
Cicerone consule, Catilina tempāvit oppugnāre (impetum
facere) rem publicam cum suā malā manū.
manus, -ūs, f. – “band of men”
vi