Download Ch. 11 Personality Notes doc

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Abnormal psychology wikipedia , lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia , lookup

Inclusive fitness in humans wikipedia , lookup

Schizotypy wikipedia , lookup

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship wikipedia , lookup

Self-actualization wikipedia , lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia , lookup

Social psychology wikipedia , lookup

Symbolic behavior wikipedia , lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia , lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia , lookup

Psychometrics wikipedia , lookup

Raymond Cattell wikipedia , lookup

Agreeableness wikipedia , lookup

Theory of planned behavior wikipedia , lookup

Antisocial personality disorder wikipedia , lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia , lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia , lookup

Behavioral modernity wikipedia , lookup

Organizational behavior wikipedia , lookup

Sociobiology wikipedia , lookup

Psychopathic Personality Inventory wikipedia , lookup

Zero-acquaintance personality judgments wikipedia , lookup

Thin-slicing wikipedia , lookup

Nature versus nurture wikipedia , lookup

Political psychology wikipedia , lookup

Impression formation wikipedia , lookup

Dimensional models of personality disorders wikipedia , lookup

16PF Questionnaire wikipedia , lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia , lookup

Personality test wikipedia , lookup

Hypostatic model of personality wikipedia , lookup

Personality psychology wikipedia , lookup

Hidden personality wikipedia , lookup

Ch. 11
What is personality?
An individual’s unique collection of
consistent behavioral traits
– CONSISTENCY: characteristics that
people display over time and in a variety of
– DISTINCTIVENESS: characteristics that
distinguish individuals from each other
Personality Traits
Relatively consistent characteristics exhibited
in different situations
– Typical adjectives use:
• Honest
• Dependable
• Moody
Allport (1961) identified 4500 words used to
describe personality traits
Cartell (1990) reduced that number to 16
basic dimensions of personality
Five-Factor Model
McCrae & Costa (1999) believe that
personality can be described with just
FIVE traits
WHY so simple?
– They believe the five traits capture all the
meaningful individual differences at the
broadest level
“The Big Five”
The Five traits that describe all aspects
of human personality:
O: Openness
C: Conscientiousness
E: Extraversion
A: Agreeableness
N: Neuroticism
Psychodynamic Perspective
Sigmund Freud’s theory
Explains personality, motivation, and
psychological disorders by focusing on:
– Early childhood experiences
– Unconscious motives & conflicts
(Sexual & Aggressive motives)
Structure of Personality
– Primitive, instinctive component of personality
– Operates according to the Pleasure Principle
– “I want it all now!”
• Wants immediate gratification
– Engages in Primary-Process Thinking
• Primitive, illogical, irrational, & fantasy oriented
– Moral component of personality
– Enforces societal standards about right
and wrong
• Meeting standards ------ pride
• Failing standards -------- guilt
– Deals with the real world
– Decision-making component of personality
– Operates according to the Reality Principle
• Tries to find a way to please id and society
when possible
– Need to compromise to get what you want
– Engages in Secondary-Process Thinking
• Rational, realistic, & oriented toward solving
Ego must serve 3 harsh masters:
– Pleasure seeking id
– Moralistic superego
– Realistic aspects of the environment
Levels of Awareness
Conscious: fully aware
Preconscious: just below the surface of
Unconscious: no awareness, but yet still
guiding our behavior
– P. 331 fig. 11.2 Iceberg analogy
Defense Mechanisms
Anxiety: discomfort caused by conflicts
between id and superego
Defense Mechanisms: unconscious
means by which a person tries to
prevent unacceptable id-based thoughts
or urges from reaching consciousness
– Protect us from anxiety & guilt
Specific Defense Mechanisms
– Most basic & widely used
– Painful
ries are prevented from
entering consciousness
– Reverting to immature
– Threatening impulses are
transformed into socially
acceptable activities
– Threatening thoughts are
projected onto others
– Threatening thoughts are
denied outright
– Creating explanations to
justify threatening
Reaction Formation
– Acting the opposite
of how you really
– Diverting emotional
feelings (ie. anger)
from their original
source to a substitute
p. 332 table 11.1
Expanding the
Psychodynamic Perspective
Carl Jung & Alfred Adler disagreed with
Freud’s theory because they thought it
focused too much on sexuality.
Analytical Psychology
Emphasized unconscious determinants of
personality (2 layers)
– Personal Unconscious: repressed or forgotten
(same as Freud’s repression)
– Collective Unconscious: storehouse of memory
traces inherited from our ancestral past
• Archetypes: universal symbols shared by all cultures
Thought Freud went overboard by
centering on sexual conflicts
Stressed social context of personality
development (birth order)
Behavioral Perspective
The study of observable behavior
and its influence on personality
External environment molds behavior
– Determinism-behavior is fully determined by
environmental stimuli
• Operant conditioning
– Asserts people show a stable response tendency
that is acquired through experiences
• Telling jokes @ parties (fig. 12.5 p. 338)
Social Learning Theory: personality is shaped
through learning
– Observational Learning: learning that occurs when
influenced by the observation of others
– Influential models for children and adults:
Same-sex role models
Behavior that leads to positive outcome
– Self-efficacy: how we view our ability
influences the challenges we choose
based on the outcome we expect
• Subjective
• Specific to task
• Confidence = high self-efficacy
Focused on situational factors that
govern an individual’s behavior
– Argued that there is less consistency than
originally assumed
– Focused on situational determinants and
personality variables
– Thus, people behave differently in different
Emphasis on unique human
– Freedom
– Potential for personal growth
Person-centered theory: emphasizes the
subjective point of view
– Self-concept: perceptions/beliefs about one’s own
nature, unique qualities and typical behavior
– Incongruence: gap between self-concept and
• High incongruence creates anxiety
– Congruence: meshing between self-concept and
– Fig. 11.7 p. 341
– According to Rogers, most people tend
to distort experiences to some extent to
promote a relatively favorable selfconcept
Hierarchy of Needs
– Fig. 11.9 p. 343
– Systematic arrangement of needs according to
– Basic needs must be met 1st
Healthy personalities strive for continual
personal growth (self-actualizing)
– Innate drive
– Fig. 11.10 p. 343
Biological Perspective
Personality is determined to a
large extent by a person’s genes
Heredity is in part linked through
classical conditioning
He argued that some people can be
more readily conditioned because of
differences in their physiological
– Extraversion-introversion
• Introverts tend to have high physiological
arousal which makes them more easily
• Easily conditioned individuals tend to acquire
inhibitions more easily than others
• Inhibitions make these people more bashful,
tentative and uneasy in social situations
Twin and family environment studies
– Twins tend to be more similar
– Results suggest genetic factors influence
personality much like a genetic blueprint
– Even if raised apart, identical twins are more
similar than fraternal twins raised together (4058%)
– A surprising finding…shared family environments
appear to have little impact on personality
• This contradicts theory on socialization
Evolutionary Perspective
Relatively new theory
– David Buss
– Late ‘90s
Assert that personality has a biological basis
because natural selection has favored certain
traits over the course of human history.
The “Big Five” stand out across cultures
because those traits are adaptive