Download Chapter 12 Personality

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Abnormal psychology wikipedia, lookup

Attitude change wikipedia, lookup

Impression formation wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Adherence management coaching wikipedia, lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Descriptive psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Social cognitive theory wikipedia, lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Theory of planned behavior wikipedia, lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Sociobiology wikipedia, lookup

Verbal Behavior wikipedia, lookup

Applied behavior analysis wikipedia, lookup

Thin-slicing wikipedia, lookup

Social psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behavioral modernity wikipedia, lookup

Hidden personality wikipedia, lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia, lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia, lookup

Educational psychology wikipedia, lookup

Developmental psychology wikipedia, lookup

Symbolic behavior wikipedia, lookup

Transtheoretical model wikipedia, lookup

Organizational behavior wikipedia, lookup

Conservation psychology wikipedia, lookup

Nature versus nurture wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive science wikipedia, lookup

Subfields of psychology wikipedia, lookup

Music psychology wikipedia, lookup

Cross-cultural psychology wikipedia, lookup

Political psychology wikipedia, lookup

Personality psychology wikipedia, lookup

Self-actualization wikipedia, lookup

Hypostatic model of personality wikipedia, lookup

Leadership analysis wikipedia, lookup

Dimensional models of personality disorders wikipedia, lookup

Raymond Cattell wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Personality: Some Definitions

Personality


Personality Traits


An individual’s relatively distinct & consistent
pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
dispositions to behave in a particular way in a
variety of situations
Personality Psychology

The scientific study of the psychological forces
that people uniquely themselves.
The Main Themes of Course

Interactionist model of
behavior


Genes, environment,
experiences

Many causes for behavior
Behavior varies in different
situations
Diversity & Commonality


Idiographic & nomothetic
Consistency & variability
Findings based on research



Behavior is Multi-faceted




Empirical studies
Replication of studies
Generalizability of findings
Applicable to real life


Validity of theories in personal
experiences
Useful in predicting or
explaining behavior
The 8 Basic Aspects

Psychoanalytic






Skinner, Dollard, Miller
Allport, Cattell, Eysenk
Humanistic


Kelly, Bandura
Trait

Pavlov, Eysenck
Behaviorist
Cognitive

Jung, Horney, Adler
Biological


Freud
Neo-Analytic


Rogers, Maslow
Interactionist

Murray, Mischel
Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud

Psychoanalytic theory




unconscious drives & motives
sexual & aggressive urges
emphasis on early childhood
experiences
Structure of personality



id (pleasure principle)
ego (reality principle)
super ego (moral
values/beliefs)

Defense Mechanisms



Conflicts: Id & Super Ego
Goal is to reduce anxiety
Common defenses

Denial, repression,
rationalization
Psychodynamic Perspectives: Freud

Psychosexual Stages of Development

Oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital



Emphasis placed on early development
Trauma at a stage leads to “fixation”
Consciousness (levels of awareness)
conscious, preconscious, unconscious
 Traumatic early childhood experiences
repressed into the unconscious

Neo-Analysts

Carl Jung - Analytical Psychology



Alfred Adler - Individual Psychology



Archetypes & the collective unconscious
types: introverts/extroverts (Myers-Briggs test)
striving for superiority & the inferiority complex
effects of birth order on personality development
Karen Horney – Early Feminist


Basic anxiety
Neurotic coping strategies
Biological Perspectives

Biological influences on personality



Twin studies


behavior is determined by genes
behavioral tendencies are inherited
twins are more alike in certain characteristics than
siblings and unrelated persons
Some biologically based traits



extraversion vs introversion
optimistic/positive vs pessimistic/negative
exploratory/risk-taking vs cautious/anxious
Behavioral/Learning Perspectives

Behaviorism




psychology should study only behavior
observable, can be studied scientifically
rejected notion of the unconscious
Personality is behavior



behavior is the result of classical or operant
conditioning
determinism: behavior is caused by environmental
stimuli and situations (no free will)
behavior follows “laws” of reinforcement and past
experience
Cognitive/Social Learning Theory

Cognitive model



Explanatory Styles



people think, problem-solve, reason, etc.
Perceptual indiosyncrasies
Perceptions are individual
Attributions, locus of control, learned helplessness
Social- Cognitive Learning


we learn by observing others behave and observing
the consequences that follow
can choose to follow model or not
Traits and Skills

Introversion-Extroversion




George Allport’s Trait Psychology
The Big 5




Jung’s 16 PF
Q-test data
O. C. E. A. N.
Henry Murray’s Needs and Presses
Expressive Styles
Skills & Intelligence
Humanistic-Existential Perspective

Humanism



Person-centered theory - Carl Rogers



self-concept (who you believe you are)
congruence vs incongruence (being your true self)
Existential Anxiety



emphasis on the unique qualities of individual & on free will
opposed to propositions of psychoanalysts and behaviorists
Anxiety: Rollo May
Meaning of life – Victor Frankl
Self-Actualization - Abraham Maslow


emphasized healthy aspects of human behavior
self-actualization (need to fulfill your potential)