Download chapter - Human Kinetics

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Social psychology wikipedia, lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia, lookup

Motivation wikipedia, lookup

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship wikipedia, lookup

Bullying and emotional intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Observational methods in psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behavioral modernity wikipedia, lookup

Prosocial behavior wikipedia, lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia, lookup

Symbolic behavior wikipedia, lookup

Social perception wikipedia, lookup

Impression formation wikipedia, lookup

Parent management training wikipedia, lookup

Abnormal psychology wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Thin-slicing wikipedia, lookup

Verbal Behavior wikipedia, lookup

Transtheoretical model wikipedia, lookup

Organizational behavior wikipedia, lookup

Applied behavior analysis wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Theory of planned behavior wikipedia, lookup

Descriptive psychology wikipedia, lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia, lookup

Social cognitive theory wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

E. Michael Loovis
Learning Objectives
• To identify 6 approaches to managing
behavior in APE and sport
• To understand and apply behavior
modification principles and procedures
• To analyze strengths and weaknesses of the
different behavior-management approaches
• To execute an applied behavior analysis in
an instructional episode with a student who
has a disability
Behavior Modification
• Systematic process
• Application of reinforcement learning
• Behavior controlled by its effect on the
• Positive
• Negative
• Presentation of an aversive consequence
• Removal of a positive stimulus
• Withholding of reinforcement after a
response previously reinforced
• No consequence following the response
• A stimulus (aversive or positive) neither
presented nor taken away
Principles of Operant Conditioning
Types of Reinforcers
Premack Principle
Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed ratio
Variable ratio
Fixed interval
Variable interval
Procedures to Increase Behavior
Token economy
Contingency management
Behavioral Contract
in Physical Education
• The terms of this contract are detailed below:
• The student will earn one point for every positive statement or action made to or about an opponent during participation in the class basketball unit. Student must earn 10
points to qualify for free time in the gym on Friday
• The teacher will record every demonstration of the student’s positive interactions as evidenced by the chart publicly displayed in the gym. The teacher will award points
during class and supervise free time in the gym on Friday
afternoons if the student earns the prescribed number of
• This agreement is between [student’s name] and [teacher’s name]. The contract begins on [specify date] and ends
on [specify date]. It will be reviewed on [specify date].
• Student’s signature __________________ Date _________
• Teacher’s signature __________________ Date _________
Procedures to Decrease Behavior
Reinforcement of other behavior
Reinforcement of incompatible behavior
Reinforcement of low response rates
Behavior Modification Program
Identifying the target behavior
Establishing baseline
Choosing the reinforcer
Scheduling the reinforcer
Other Approaches
Psychodynamic Approach
• Etiology of psychological dysfunction
• Understand “why” individuals behave as
they do
Psychoeducational Approach
• Inappropriate behavior = maladaptive
attempt to cope
• Education of “self”
• “Here and now”
• Self-instruction / reinforcement / reward
• Life-space interview
Ecological Approach
• Disturbance in student’s environment.
• Effect is reciprocal and negative.
• Environments accommodate individuals,
not vice versa.
Biogenic Approach
• Neurophysiological dysfunction.
• Emphasis is on etiological factors.
• Major strategy is drug therapy.
– Stimulants
– Neuroleptics
– Antidepressants
Humanistic Approach
Maslow’s self-actualization theory
Rogers’ concept of fully functioning self
Attitude theory and disability studies
Humanism and adapted physical education
– Claudine Sherrill
– Don Hellison
Behavior Management
• Control behavior
• Promote skill acquisition
• Teach prosocial behaviors