Download chapter - Human Kinetics

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Abnormal psychology wikipedia, lookup

Social perception wikipedia, lookup

Impression formation wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Descriptive psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Social cognitive theory wikipedia, lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Theory of planned behavior wikipedia, lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Verbal Behavior wikipedia, lookup

Applied behavior analysis wikipedia, lookup

Thin-slicing wikipedia, lookup

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship wikipedia, lookup

Social psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behavioral modernity wikipedia, lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia, lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia, lookup

Parent management training wikipedia, lookup

Symbolic behavior wikipedia, lookup

Observational methods in psychology wikipedia, lookup

Motivation wikipedia, lookup

Transtheoretical model wikipedia, lookup

Organizational behavior wikipedia, lookup

Bullying and emotional intelligence wikipedia, lookup

Prosocial behavior wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
chapter
6
Behavior
Management
E. Michael Loovis
Learning Objectives
• To identify 6 approaches to managing
behavior in APE and sport
• To understand and apply behavior
modification principles and procedures
• To analyze strengths and weaknesses of the
different behavior-management approaches
• To execute an applied behavior analysis in
an instructional episode with a student who
has a disability
Behavior Modification
• Systematic process
• Application of reinforcement learning
principles
• Behavior controlled by its effect on the
environment
Reinforcement
• Positive
• Negative
Punishment
• Presentation of an aversive consequence
• Removal of a positive stimulus
Extinction
• Withholding of reinforcement after a
response previously reinforced
• No consequence following the response
• A stimulus (aversive or positive) neither
presented nor taken away
Principles of Operant Conditioning
Types of Reinforcers
•
•
•
•
Primary
Secondary
Vicarious
Premack Principle
Schedules of Reinforcement
•
•
•
•
Fixed ratio
Variable ratio
Fixed interval
Variable interval
Procedures to Increase Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Shaping
Chaining
Prompting
Fading
Modeling
Token economy
Contingency management
Behavioral Contract
in Physical Education
• The terms of this contract are detailed below:
• The student will earn one point for every positive statement or action made to or about an opponent during participation in the class basketball unit. Student must earn 10
points to qualify for free time in the gym on Friday
afternoons.
• The teacher will record every demonstration of the student’s positive interactions as evidenced by the chart publicly displayed in the gym. The teacher will award points
during class and supervise free time in the gym on Friday
afternoons if the student earns the prescribed number of
points.
• This agreement is between [student’s name] and [teacher’s name]. The contract begins on [specify date] and ends
on [specify date]. It will be reviewed on [specify date].
• Student’s signature __________________ Date _________
• Teacher’s signature __________________ Date _________
Procedures to Decrease Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
Reinforcement of other behavior
Reinforcement of incompatible behavior
Reinforcement of low response rates
Punishment
Time-out
Behavior Modification Program
•
•
•
•
Identifying the target behavior
Establishing baseline
Choosing the reinforcer
Scheduling the reinforcer
Other Approaches
•
•
•
•
•
Psychodynamic
Psychoeducational
Ecological
Biogenic
Humanistic
Psychodynamic Approach
• Etiology of psychological dysfunction
• Understand “why” individuals behave as
they do
Psychoeducational Approach
• Inappropriate behavior = maladaptive
attempt to cope
• Education of “self”
• “Here and now”
• Self-instruction / reinforcement / reward
• Life-space interview
Ecological Approach
• Disturbance in student’s environment.
• Effect is reciprocal and negative.
• Environments accommodate individuals,
not vice versa.
Biogenic Approach
• Neurophysiological dysfunction.
• Emphasis is on etiological factors.
• Major strategy is drug therapy.
– Stimulants
– Neuroleptics
– Antidepressants
Humanistic Approach
•
•
•
•
Maslow’s self-actualization theory
Rogers’ concept of fully functioning self
Attitude theory and disability studies
Humanism and adapted physical education
– Claudine Sherrill
– Don Hellison
Behavior Management
• Control behavior
• Promote skill acquisition
• Teach prosocial behaviors