Sean Rizzo, David Mojica, Gabriela Castro, Aubrey Gehmlich
... competition for moral and cooperative partners. The individual differences reveal themselves in
altruism by characterizing it as a costly signal which means that people who can afford to help
others than themselves have better resources and can “signal self-control, strength of character,
or even in ...
What is Mob Psychology
... Zimbardo found that the group of subjects who wore the hoods (were
anonymous/depersonalized) gave nearly twice as much electric shock as those who did not.
An additional study conducted by Watson in 1973 found that, of tribal warriors in Africa,
those who wore face paint or other masks while in batt ...
... • Why not?
• Diffusion of responsibility
– AKA Bystander Effect
– Studies suggest that the larger the number of
people who witness an emergency situation, the
less likely anyone is to intervene. Why is this so?
Module 27 Notes Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning A type
... Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if
followed by a punisher.
The likelihood of a behavior’s occurrence is linked to the response (consequence) that behavior
o Rewards and Punishments (Behavior that operates on the environment to ...
... The idea of kin selection is the idea that
behaviors that help a genetic relative are
favored by natural selection.
057 Learning by Observation
... Answer the following questions in YOUR OWN WORDS. You only have to do TWO of the questions
marked with asterisks ***
... - parent gives an order
- child does not comply
- parent spend much time arguing and
- child is receiving extra attention
File - Farrell`s Class Page
... - Suppresses behavior only as long as
the delivery is guaranteed. If parents
are inconsistent, children learn how to
“get away with murder.”
- Punishment may be imitated as an
appropriate way of solving problems.
... Emphasis on social cognition = how people make sense of their social world—
i.e., how they perceive, represent, interpret, and remember information about
themselves and about other individuals and groups.
- methodology and ideology from Developmental, Social, and Cognitive
- comparative cognition (i ...
M O D U L E 1 0
... 18 an accidental pairing of a reinforcer and a behavior causes that behavior to occur again.
19 a program or rule that determines how and when a response will be rewarded.
20 if the removal of an aversive stimulus increases the chances of a response occurring again,
it is called a __________ reinfor ...
... Positive observational learning
• Modeling/observation of prosocial
behaviors increases the occurrence of
– Children who observe regular prosocial
behaviors engage in those behaviors and
exhibit prosocial attitudes
– Adult behavior can also be influenced by
chapter - Human Kinetics
... • The terms of this contract are detailed below:
• The student will earn one point for every positive statement or action made to or about an opponent during participation in the class basketball unit. Student must earn 10
points to qualify for free time in the gym on Friday
• The teache ...
... – Animal learns to repeat behaviors that result in
reward, and avoid those that end in punishment
– “trial-and-error” learning
– This learning begins with “random behavior”
– Many animals use this type of learning to identify
sources of food
Reinforcements from the environment ∙Operant conditioning: a type of
... primary US like buying food and a shelter makes money a secondary reinforcer.
-As long as the CS-US connection is maintained the secondary reinforcers (or
punishers) can be used to modify behavior.
4. The neutrality of reinforcers
∙David Premack (1962) came up with the Premack Principle-discerning w ...
... -Teaching machine/Computer-assisted education: Learning materials that are programmed to
make sure each student to understand a point before he or she proceeds.
-Immediate reinforcement to each positive response.
-Remember that Roger ...
Overview and Methodology
... a) Placebo: a pill with no pharmacological effects.
2) Dependent Variable: the item that the experimenter measures to see
if the independent variable had an effect.
3) Experimental Group: the group that receives a treatment that an
experiment is designed to test.
4) Control Group: the group that is ...
Module 22 Powerpoint
... From Mirroring to Imitation
Humans are prone to spontaneous imitation of both
behaviors and emotions (“emotional contagion”).
This includes even overimitating, that is, copying adult
behaviors that have no function and no reward.
Children with autism are less likely to cognitively “mirror,”
... Behavior can be reduced to relationships between
stimuli and responses, the S—R model.
A stimulus can be shown to cause a response or a
response can be tracked by a stimulus.
life’s most complicated acts are but combinations
of these simple stimulus– response patterns of
Radical B ...
... • I should be loved by everyone – otherwise I must be doing something
• I should be thoroughly competent at everything.
• It is it catastrophic when things are not the way I want them to be.
Prosocial behavior, or ""voluntary behavior intended to benefit another"", is a social behavior that ""benefit[s] other people or society as a whole,"" ""such as helping, sharing, donating, co-operating, and volunteering."" These actions may be motivated by empathy and by concern about the welfare and rights of others, as well as for egoistic or practical concerns. Evidence suggests that prosociality is central to the well-being of social groups across a range of scales. Empathy is a strong motive in eliciting prosocial behavior, and has deep evolutionary roots.Prosocial behavior fosters positive traits that are beneficial for children and society. It may be motivated both by altruism and by self-interest, for reasons of immediate benefit or future reciprocity. Evolutionary psychologists use theories such as kin-selection theory and inclusive fitness as an explanation for why prosocial behavioral tendencies are passed down generationally, according to the evolutionary fitness displayed by those who engaged in prosocial acts. Encouraging prosocial behavior may also require decreasing or eliminating undesirable social behaviors.Although the term ""prosocial behavior"" is often associated with developing desirable traits in children, the literature on the topic has grown since the late 1980s to include adult behaviors as well.