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Transcript
Anxiety Disorders
Chapter 11 Section 2
Types of Anxiety Disorders

Disorders are characterized by excessive
or inappropriate anxiety reactions.

Major types
◦
◦
◦
◦
Phobias
Panic disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
PHOBIAS
Phobias- Irrational or excessive fears of particular objects or
situations.
The DSM-IV classifies 3 types of phobic disorders.
• Social phobia (meeting others, dating, giving speeches in
class)
• Specific phobia (heights, animals, insects, enclosed spaces)
• Agoraphobia (open or public places)
Phobia
Anyone
phobia?
have a
Phobias

http://phobialist.com/

http://www.unusualphobias.com/Phobias.h
tml
Panic Disorder

People with panic disorder experience sudden
episodes of sheer terror.

Characterized by intense physical symptoms (Write
down 3)
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Profuse sweating
Nausea
Numbness or tingling
Chills
Trembling
Chest pain
Shortness of breath
Rapid heartbeat
Panic Disorder

Panic disorder can, at first, come out of
the blue.

Later, they are usually associated with
situations
◦ Agoraphobia can develop in people who have
panic disorders.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Experience persistent anxiety that is not
tied to any particular object or situation.

Anxiety is a “free floating” quality that
travels with the person from place to
place.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Persistent obsessions and/or compulsions.

Nagging, intrusive thoughts that are
unable to be controlled.

Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or
“rituals” the person performs again and
again.
So…
What’s
the difference
between a compulsion
and a superstition?
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Biological
Factors
◦ Genetics have been found to be
a cause of panic disorders,
generalized anxiety disorder,
OCD, and phobic disorders
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Biological
Factors
◦ Biochemical changes in brain trigger
an “internal alarm” to induce panic
◦ Obsessional thinking may be linked
to danger sensing areas of the brain
may be heightened in some people.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Psychological
Factors
◦ Phobias may be learned through classical
conditioning (people who have been bit
by dogs maybe scared of them).
◦ Operant conditioning may reinforce
avoidance behavior (avoidance of object
is negatively reinforced by feelings of
safety).
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
 Negative
reinforcement can help
perpetuate OCD (obsessive
thoughts trigger anxiety, which is
partially relieved through
performing a ritual. In effect, the
solution becomes the problem)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Triggering stimulus
(internal or external)
Perceived Threat
Catastrophic
interpretations
of sensations
Feelings of
apprehension
or worry
Body
Sensations