Download Chapt24 slides - Workforce3One

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

X-inactivation wikipedia, lookup

Polyploid wikipedia, lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Designer baby wikipedia, lookup

Genomic imprinting wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression programming wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of human development wikipedia, lookup

Gene wikipedia, lookup

Nutriepigenomics wikipedia, lookup

Public health genomics wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression profiling wikipedia, lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Human genetic variation wikipedia, lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia, lookup

Genome evolution wikipedia, lookup

Minimal genome wikipedia, lookup

Ridge (biology) wikipedia, lookup

RNA-Seq wikipedia, lookup

Gene desert wikipedia, lookup

Therapeutic gene modulation wikipedia, lookup

Helitron (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Non-coding DNA wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics in learning and memory wikipedia, lookup

Genomics wikipedia, lookup

Human genome wikipedia, lookup

No-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) Genome Editing wikipedia, lookup

Genome editing wikipedia, lookup

Metagenomics wikipedia, lookup

Pathogenomics wikipedia, lookup

Genomic library wikipedia, lookup

Transposable element wikipedia, lookup

Whole genome sequencing wikipedia, lookup

Oncogenomics wikipedia, lookup

Mitochondrial DNA wikipedia, lookup

Human Genome Project wikipedia, lookup

Copy-number variation wikipedia, lookup

Segmental Duplication on the Human Y Chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Adaptive evolution in the human genome wikipedia, lookup

NUMT wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Opener
Chapter 24 – Genome
Evolution
• Comparative Genomes
• Powerful tool for exploring evolutionary divergence
among organisms
• Footprints on the evolutionary path between different
species
• Helped to differentiate between different kingdoms
• Comparison between human and pufferfish
genome – first time for two vertebrates
• Shared a common ancestor 450 million years ago
• Some genes common were conserved and many are
unique to both
• 97% of human genome is repetitive DNA but less
than 1/6 of Fugu sequence has repetitive DNA
• Comparison between human and mouse genomes
• Humans and mice diverged 75 million years ago
• Human genome shares 99% of its homology with
mice (300 genes are unique to each)
• Comparison between human and chimpanzee
genomes
• Humans and chimpanzees diverged 35 million years
ago and show high homology
• DNA mutations: Non-synonymous changes alter
amino acid codes but synonymous do not alter them
• Single nucleotide substitutions, insertions and
deletions of DNA bases found
• Comparative Genomes
• Differences in generation time accounts for different
rates of genomic evolution
• Organisms with smaller generation time have faster
evolution
• Rate of mutation in germ line of mice and humans is
same for each generation
• Plant genes responsible for photosynthesis has not
been found in animals
• Plants, animals and fungi have 70% homology which
is responsible for replication, repair, transcription and
translation
Fig. 24.1
Fig. 24.2
• How Polyploids guides studies of genome
evolution?
• Paleopolyploids- study of ancient polyploids
• Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic tools
establish the time and pattern of polyploidy events
• Presence or absence of duplicated gene pairs provide
information about when both genome duplication and
gene loss occurred
• All copies of duplicated gene pairs might not exist
thousands or millions years after polyploidization
Fig. 24.3
With passage of time, duplicated gene pairs might/will get lost
• Synthetic polyploids provide another source for
understanding genome evolution
• Synthesized by crossing closely related plants similar
to their ancestral species and then inducing
chromosome doubling via chemicals
• Produces sterility in the plant
Fig. 24.4
Genome
downsizing has
occurred in
M.truncatula
Fig. 24.6
Elimination or
rapid loss of
genes or whole
chromosomes
over a longer
period of time
or in short span
of few
generations
•
How Polyploids guides studies of genome
evolution?
- Polyploidization leads to a change in gene expression
• Leads to methylation of cytosine
• Leads to short-term gene silencing
- Polyploidization can lead to jumping of transposon
• Transposon can move to new position in genome
giving rise to new phenotypes
•
In plants – generation of biodiversity and
adaptations
• Evolution within Genomes – by duplication
• Aneuploidy is duplication or loss of an individual
chromosome rather than entire genome
• DNA segments may be duplicated which can lead to
loss of function, gain of a novel function or have the
total function divide into two parts. Paralogues and
Orthologues
Fig. 24.8
Two midsized ape chromosomes fused to form a human chromosome –
rearrangement of chromosomes
Fig. 24.9
Conservation of synteny – Information of conservation of
genes/synteny allows researchers to locate a gene in different
species
Fig. 24.10
Gene inactivation results in pseudogenes
70% of olfactory receptor (OR) genes are inactive pseudogenes
Half of OR genes in chimpanzee and gorilla function effectively and
95% of OR genes of New World monkey and all mouse OR genes
work very well
Humans started relying on other senses reducing selection pressure
against loss of OR gene function by random mutation
Comparison of human and chimpanzee genomes show that Or genes are
becoming pseudogenes although the number is higher in humans than in
chimpanzees
Fig. 24.11
Fig. 24.12
Fig. 24.13
Fig. 24.14
Fig. 24.14.a
Fig. 24.14.b
Fig. 24.14.c
Fig. 24.14.d
This project is funded by a grant awarded under the President’s Community Based Job Training Grant as implemented by the U.S. Department of
Labor’s Employment and Training Administration (CB-15-162-06-60). NCC is an equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate on the
following basis:
against any individual in the United States, on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age disability, political affiliation or belief; and
against any beneficiary of programs financially assisted under Title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), on the basis of the beneficiary’s
citizenship/status as a lawfully admitted immigrant authorized to work in the United States, or his or her participation in any WIA Title I-financially
assisted program or activity.
“This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s Community-Based Job Training Grants as
implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. The solution was created by the grantee
and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. The Department of Labor makes no guarantees,
warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites
and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued
availability, or ownership. This solution is copyrighted by the institution that created it. Internal use by an organization and/or
personal use by an individual for non-commercial purposes is permissible. All other uses require the prior authorization of the
copyright owner.”