Download Slide 1

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Genetic code wikipedia, lookup

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Polycomb Group Proteins and Cancer wikipedia, lookup

Karyotype wikipedia, lookup

X-inactivation wikipedia, lookup

Neocentromere wikipedia, lookup

Chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Y chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Polyploid wikipedia, lookup

Skewed X-inactivation wikipedia, lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Designer baby wikipedia, lookup

Genomic imprinting wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression programming wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of human development wikipedia, lookup

Gene wikipedia, lookup

Saethre–Chotzen syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis wikipedia, lookup

Nutriepigenomics wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression profiling wikipedia, lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia, lookup

Population genetics wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia, lookup

Genome evolution wikipedia, lookup

Minimal genome wikipedia, lookup

Epistasis wikipedia, lookup

Ridge (biology) wikipedia, lookup

RNA-Seq wikipedia, lookup

Gene nomenclature wikipedia, lookup

Gene desert wikipedia, lookup

Therapeutic gene modulation wikipedia, lookup

NEDD9 wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases wikipedia, lookup

Cancer epigenetics wikipedia, lookup

No-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) Genome Editing wikipedia, lookup

Mutation wikipedia, lookup

Mutagen wikipedia, lookup

Frameshift mutation wikipedia, lookup

Oncogenomics wikipedia, lookup

Essential gene wikipedia, lookup

Copy-number variation wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
changes in the genetic
material (DNA).
1.Gene Mutations
2.Chromosomal Mutations
Point Mutations: Changes in
one or more nucleotides
Examples
:
a. Substitutions
b. Insertions
c. Deletions
Substitutions
switch 1/few base(s) for
another
Insertions
add in an extra base
Deletions
loses a base
**Insertions and deletions
can cause a…
Frame shift when a base is
added or deleted, the bases are still
read in groups of 3 (mRNA codons),
BUT now the grouping is
shifted for every codon that
follows.
It’s like cutting in line (insertion) or
getting out of line (deletion)- everybody
else moves forward or backward
** A frame shift mutation can
alter a protein so much that it
is unable to function normally.
changes in the number or structure
of chromosomes.
Examples:
Deletion
Duplication
Inversion
Translocation
Deletion
losing a gene (AB*DEF)
genes of a chromosome are permanently lost
as they become unattached to the
centromere and are lost forever
Duplicationadding an extra copy of a gene (ABBC*DEF)
In this mutation, the mutants genes are displayed
twice on the same chromosome due to duplication of
these genes.
Inversion
flipping backwards the genes within a
chromosome (FED*CBA)
This is where the order of a particular order
of genes are reversed as seen below
Translocation-
moving genes from 1 chromosome to another
(ABC*DEF and GHI*JKL become ABC*JKL and
GH*IDEF).
This is where information from one of two
homologous chromosomes breaks and binds to the
other. Usually this sort of mutation is lethal
** Significance of Mutations:
Some have little to no effect on gene
expression or protein function.
(Example: a substitution that doesn’t
change the amino acid).
Harmful changes- disrupt normal
activities (many related to cancer).
Some are actually useful/beneficial
(example- crop plants).
A gourd-shaped tortoise is seen in Huaibei,
east China's Anhui Province, June 24, 2007.
Residents say a gene mutation contributed to
the aberration, local media reported.
(China Daily/ Reuters )