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Plant Structures
Cellular Structure
• Tell me about a plant cell
Cellular Structure
• Cell:
– Tiny structure – forms building blocks of plants
• All organisms are made of one or more cells
Cellular Structure
• Protoplasm in cells carries out life processes
• A plant is a multi-cellular organism
– More than one cell
Cellular Structure
• Cell specialization
– Some cells have specific jobs
• Examples of specialized cells are cells in the:
– Flower
– Stem
– Root
Cellular Structure
• Specialized cells are formed into groups
– These groups are called plant tissue
• Tissues that work together are formed into
– The organ has a specific
Cellular Structure
• Organs that work together are formed into
organ systems
– The organ system has a specific function
• From smallest to largest:
Specialized cell – tissue – organ – organ system - plant
Cellular Structure
Cellular Structure
• Three major parts in a plant cell
Cellular Structure
• Cell Wall
– Surrounds the cell
– Controls movement of
in and out
Cellular Structure
• Nucleus
– Contains protoplasm,
chromosomes, and
other structures that
control cell
Cellular Structure
• Cytoplasm
– Thick solution in the
cell surrounding the
– Houses all
Cellular Structure
• Cytoplasm
– Other organelles include:
– Mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes,
lysosomes, vacuoles, and others
Major Plant Parts
Vegetative Parts:
Reproductive Parts:
Root Functions
• Absorb Water and Nutrients
• Anchor plants and support the
above-ground part of the plant
• Store food to be used later
Root Functions
• Need to grow constantly for plant to stay healthy
• First structure to form seed
• Plant health is closely tied to root health
Root Structure
• Primary Root
– First root to grow from the
• Secondary Roots
– Grow from primary root
Root Systems
• Fibrous Root
– System that has no
dominant primary root
• Taproot
– A system composed of
one primary root and
many secondary roots
that branch off
Root Nodules
• Swellings (bumps) on the roots
• Rhizobium bacteria live in these bumps
– they take nitrogen from the air and combine it with oxygen
to make it useable to the plant
– puts nitrogen in the soil so that
crops that grow there later may
use the nitrogen
• Legumes are the group of plants with nodules
• Soybeans, clover, alfalfa, beans, peas
Root Health
• Healthy Roots: Roots are white or nearly
white, and smell fresh.
• Unhealthy Roots: Roots are black, brown, or
dark orange and smell rotten and sour.
Root Health
• Watering properly drastically affects the
plant’s health
– Drainage holes in the pot
– Soaked with water until it drains out the bottom
encourages plant growth throughout the entire
– Allow soil to dry slightly
between watering