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Transcript
Unit 2: Cells
& Microscope
Cell Objectives:
1. Know the Organization of life.
2. Know who first saw cells.
3. Know The Cell Theory.
4. Know the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
5. Know the 12 organelles in Eukaryotic cells.
6. Know the differences between plant and animal cells.
Cells
All living things are composed of ________.
A cell is a _______________________ structure that contains all of the materials necessary for
life.
An organism is _____________________________________.
Organisms can be ____________or __________.
Unicellular: Made up of only ______cell. They usually need to be seen using a
______________.
Multi-cellular: Made up of _________________cell. They have groups of cells that work
together.
Discovery of Cells
Cells were discovered in 1665 by _______________________.
He was looking at cork from the bark of a tree using a microscope.
____________________________saw the first living cells in 1673.
He observed pond scum, blood and was the first person to see bacteria.
The Cell Theory
Scientists later discovered a lot more about cells using more powerful microscopes.
They developed The Cell Theory.
The Cell Theory States:
o ______________________________________
o ______________________________________
o _____________________________________
Theodor Schwann developed the theory in 1839.
Organization of Life
For Multi-cellular organisms:
________
Make up
__________
Make up
__________
Make up
___________________
Make up
__________
Types of Cells
Prokaryotic:
Cells that do _______have a nucleus
Do ______have membrane bound organelles
______________ DNA
Ex: ______________
Eukaryotic:
Cells that ____ have a nucleus
Do have ___________________organelles
__________ DNA
All other organisms
Cell Parts (Organelles)
Eukaryotic Cells:
• cytoplasm
• endoplasmic reticulum
• cell membrane
• mitochondria
• cell wall
• chloroplast
• nucleus
• Golgi complex
• nucleolus
• vacuole
• ribosomes
• lysosomes
Types of Eukaryotic Cells
Animal:
Plant:
Function of cell parts
1. Cytoplasm
 Jelly-like ___________ inside cell
 ________________are found floating here
Function of cell parts
2. Cell Membrane
 ____________ the cell
 Keeps ______________ inside
 Allows ______________ in and out of the cell
Function of cell parts
3. Cell Wall
 Provides ____________ and ___________ to cell membrane
 Found only in __________ cells
 Gives plant cells their _____________ shape
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Function of cell parts
4. Nucleus
 __________________ of the cell = “brain”
 Where ______ is found
5. Nucleolus
 Stores materials to make ______________
 Found inside nucleus
Function of cell parts
6. Ribosomes
 Site of protein _____________
 Amino acids are joined together to make proteins.
 Are found in cytoplasm or attached to
 ______________ but most abundant organelle
__________________________
Function of cell parts
7. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
 Internal _____________ system
 Makes lipids and other materials for inside and outside the cell.
 Breaks down drugs and other harmful chemicals.
 May be covered with _______________ (Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum)
 Found near ______________
Function of cell parts
8. Mitochondria
 _______________ of the cell
 _________ for the cell is made here from nutrients
 Surrounded by ______ membranes
Function of cell parts
9. Chloroplast
 Absorbs ______________ to help plants make nutrients
for energy
 Contains chlorophyll (green pigment)
 Found only in ________ cells
Function of cell parts
10. Golgi Complex
 Materials are packaged in ____________ for shipment outside of the cell.
 Located near the ____________________
Function of cell parts
11. Vacuole
 Stores _________ and other liquids
 Large vacuoles found in ___________
Contractile Vacuole:
 _______________ excess water out of the cell
Function of cell parts
12. Lysosomes
 Digest (______________) materials found in vesicles with enzymes
(_________________).
 Get rid of _____________
 ____________the cell against invaders
 Found in _______________cells
cell wall
cell membrane
lysosome
Animal Cell
chloroplast
Plant Cell
cytoplasm
nucleolus
nucleus
DNA
ER
mitochondria
Golgi Complex
ribosome
vacuole
Comparing Plant & Animal Cells
Animal
Both
Plant
Microscope Objectives:
1. Know the parts of the microscope.
2. Know the functions of microscope parts.
3. Know how to determine orientation of an object
microscope.
under the
4. Know how to determine magnification, field of view
object.
and size of an
5. Know proper technique to use microscope.
Microscope parts
Use this diagram to label your microscope picture
Microscope Functions
Eyepiece:
Arm:
Body tube:
The part you look through. Where you place your eye.
Attaches eyepiece to the base.
Supports the eyepiece
Coarse adjustment knob:
This moves the stage up and down to get object into
initial focus.
NEVER use under high power.
Fine adjustment knob:
Used to make small adjustments to the focus.
Microscope Functions
Nosepiece:
Rotating piece that changes objectives (low & high)
Objectives:
Lens that magnify the object
Stage:
The place where the specimen is placed.
Stage clips:
Holds the specimen slide in place.
Diaphragm:
Allows different amounts of light through the slide.
Light source:
Reflects light onto the stage to observe specimen
Base:
Supports the entire microscope
Determining total magnification
Multiply the magnification of the eyepiece by
the magnification of the objective.
Eyepiece = 10x
Objective = 4x
Total magnification = 10 x 4 = 40x
Eyepiece = 10x
Objective = 40x
Total magnification = 10 x 40 = 400x
Object Orientation
cover slip
e
slide
As you look through the eyepiece the image you
see is upside down and backwards from the
specimen on the slide.
If you move the slide to the left the object
moves to the right in the eyepiece.
If you move the slide to the right the object
moves to the left in the eyepiece.
Field of View
Each mark = 1 mm or 1000 μm
100x
Determine the field of view by
counting marks under low power.
Field of view = 3mm or 3000 μm
Determining object size
Using the determined field of view:
1. Count the number of cells in a row.
100x
1. 6 cells
2. Divide the number of cells into the
field of view in μm.
2. 3000 μm / 6 cells = 500 μm (size of one cell)