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Transcript
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• All living things are made up
of one or more cells (cell
=smallest unit of life).
• Cells are the smallest units
of life in an organism.
• All cells come from
preexisting cells by cell
division.
•
•
•
•
•
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Organelles (“little organs”)
Cell Wall - found only
around plant cells (not really part
of a cell but found just on the
outside of the plant cells)
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Outermost layer (boundary) of the cell.
• Porous (semi-permeable)
• Consists of a double layer of fat
interspersed with large protein molecules.
Source: Biology: The Living Science ,
Prentice Hall, 1998
• Controls the movement of substances into
(nutrients) and out of (wastes) the cell.
• Protection
• Gives structure (shape) to the cell.
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• A thick, jelly-like
substance
(protoplasm) found
inside plant and animal
cells
• fills in the space
between the nucleus
and the cell membrane.
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• Protects and supports
the cell’s organelles
(the “little organs” of
the cell: ribosomes,
mitochondria, E.R.,
golgi bodies, lysosomes,
etc.).
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Not all cells have a
nucleus. Cells that do
not have a nucleus are
called Prokaryotes.
Bacillus bacteria….procaryotic cells
Source: Biology Today, CRM Books, 1972
Cells that have a
nucleus are called
EUCARYOTES.
Elodea…eucaryotic cells
Source: Biology, The Living Science, Prentice
Hall, 1998
• Large oval structure found
usually near the center of
Eukaryotic cells
• Contains the genetic material
(hereditary material) such as
chromosomes, genes, DNA,
RNA.
• Contains the nucleolus a
darker area within the
nucleus that is thought to
store proteins.
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Controls and regulates all
of the cell’s activities such
as protein synthesis,
energy production, the
movement of substances
in and out of the cell, cell
division (mitosis, and
meiosis).
• NUCLEUS
(electron micrograph…EM image)
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Chromatin - all the
thread-like material
that is the genetic or
hereditary material
within the nucleus of
the cell. Made up of
chromosomes.
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• Chromosome - individual selfduplicating strands of genetic
material. When the cell is
dividing, the chromatin
becomes thicker and more
‘rod-shaped’...each of these
rod shapes is a chromosome
(collectively, all the
chromosomes in the nucleus
comprises the chromatin).
Source: Biology: The Living Science,
Prentice Hall, 1998
• Gene: a hereditary
factor/unit found on a
chromosome. Thousands
of genes are found on
each chromosome. Each
gene determines one
characteristic of the cell
or individual (i.e. hair
color, eye color, skin
color, etc.).
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• D.N.A. (deoxyribonucleic acid):
a very complex molecular
structure that is considered the
“blueprint” for life. Contains all
the necessary information to
control all the characteristics and
activities of the organism. The
DNA ultimately makes up all of
the genetic/hereditary material.
Clip
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mitochondria (mitochondrion is singular)
Vacuoles
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.)…rough…smooth
Golgi bodies (or golgi apparatus)
Chloroplast (plants only)
Lysosomes
Vesicle
• Bean-shaped or rodshaped structure found in
the cytoplasm of both
plant and animal cells.
• Contains A.T.P. (adenosine
triphosphate) a complex
high energy molecule.
• Mitochondrion
(singular)…Mitochondria (plural)
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• Produces energy for the
cell (cellular respiration).
• “The powerhouse of the
cell”
• Mitochondria (plural) are
very abundant in cells
that require lots of energy
(i.e. muscle cells).
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice
Hall, 1998
• A round fluid-filled sac
found in the cytoplasm of
both plant and animal cells.
• Contents may be liquid or
solids.
• Many plant cells have large
(larger than animals)
vacuoles. They may even
occupy 50-90% of the cells’
volume.
Source: Life A Biological Science, Harcourt, Brace,
Jovanovich, 1975
• Storage place for food (proteins, fat,
carbohydrates), water, wastes, etc. for the
cell.
• Many plant cells have a large central
vacuole in order to store a large amount of
water (this is especially true for desert
plants...that have very little water
resources).
• Small round structures
found in the cytoplasm
of animal cells (not
usually found in plants).
• Contain digestive
enzymes (defined as
“organic catalysts”).
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• Involved in digestive activities
including breaking down large food
molecules into smaller ones.
• Digestion of old cell parts. It might
even destroy the cell....thus the
nickname: “suicide bag.”
• Appear as dots (using a
powerful microscope) in the
cytoplasm of both plant and
animal cells.
• Can be attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.)
or ‘free floating’ in the
cytoplasm.
• Ribosomes are made in the
nucleus.
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall,
1998
• Produces protein (protein synthesis).
• The “plan” for protein synthesis
comes from the D.N.A. in the nucleus
of the cell. The ribosomes “read” the
plan and assembles the sequence of
amino acids (the building blocks of
proteins) to build the proteins.
• A network of of folded
membranes that extend
from the cell membrane
throughout the cytoplasm.
• Rough E.R. has ribosomes
attached to them.
• Smooth E.R. does not
have ribosomes attached
to them.
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Transports proteins
produced by the
ribosomes.
• Transports proteins to
regions of the cell
where they are needed
or to the Golgi bodies
to be exported from
the cell.
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Sometimes called golgi
apparatus.
• Consists of stacks of
sacs....like a stack of
pancakes or soggy paper
plates.
• Pinching off from the
edges of the Golgi bodies
sacs are vesicles.
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• The storage and packaging of
materials that will be
exported from the cell (the
“shipping department” of the
cell). (UPS/Fed Ex)
• Vesicles pinch off from the
golgi apparatus move to the
cell membrane carrying the
substances stored in the golgi
bodies. These substances are
then released (secreted).
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
• Spherical sacs found
in the cytoplasm of
cells that helps to
transport materials
around the cell and
out of the cell.
• Golgi bodies package
secretions and the
vesicles transport
the secretions to the
cell membrane for its
release from the cell.
• Oval-shaped green
structures found in the
cytoplasm of plant cells (not
found in animal cells).
• Mostly found in the cells in
the leaves of plants.
• Contains a green pigment
called Chlorophyll.
Source: Life A Biological Science, Harcourt, Brace,
Jovanovich, 1975
• Site for
Photosynthesis.
• Chloroplasts use
the sun’s energy to
make food for the
plant.
Cross section of a leaf
(green = chloroplasts)
Source: Life A Biological Science, Harcourt, Brace,
Jovanovich, 1975
• The internal ‘beams’
for support. The
microtubules and
microfilaments are
the internal supports
(beams) for the cell.
Source: Biology: The Living Science, Prentice Hall, 1998
• Not actually part of a cell.
It is found only on the
outside of plant cells (just
outside of the cell
membrane).
• Located VERY close to the
cell membrane.
• Very rigid and strong.
• Made up of cellulose (a
starch compound).
Cell wall
Source: Life A Biological Science, Harcourt, Brace,
Jovanovich, 1975
• Gives structure and
support to the cell (and
because plants are
made up of cells...gives
structure and support
to the plant).
• Protection for the cell.
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
Source: Life a Biological Science, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1975
Source: Biology; Miller, Levine; Prentice Hall, 1998
Source: Biology: The Living Science , Prentice Hall, 1998
Source: Biology: The Living Science , Prentice Hall, 1998