Download PARTS OF THE CELL CELL ORGANELLES

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Transcript
PARTS OF THE CELL
FUNCTIONS OF CELL ORGANELLES
NUCLEUS: controls most cell processes
and contains DNA (code for all proteins
and other molecules made by cells)
CELL MEMBRANE – in both Plant and
Animal Cells
Is a double layered sheet called a lipid bilayer with
proteins embedded in it.
Functions: a.) regulates what enters and leaves cell
b.) Provides protection and support to cell.
RIBOSOMES
• Organelle that produces proteins by following
coded instructions received from the nucleus’
DNA.
• Some ribosomes move freely in the cell.
• Other ribosomes are
attached to the endoplasmic
reticulum.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Two types: Rough E.R. and Smooth E.R.
Function is to assemble components of the cell
membrane.
rE.R. has ribosomes on its surface and makes proteins
sE.R. has enzymes that synthesize (make) lipids (fats)
GOLGI APPARATUS
Proteins made by rE.R. move into a stack of
Golgi apparatus to be stored. Enzymes in the
Golgi apparatus attach carbohydrates and
lipids to proteins.
LYSOSOMES
This tiny organelle is filled with enzymes.
a.) Function is to break down lipids(fats),
carbohydrates, & proteins into particles usable by
rest of cell.
b.) Also function to break down organelles that have
outlived their usefulness. This helps prevent “junk”
from cluttering up cell.
VACUOLES
Sacs that store water, salts, proteins, and
carbohydrates.
Plant cells have larger vacuoles than animal cells.
In plant cells, vacuoles provide pressure to support
heavy leaves, stems and flowers.
MITOCHONDRIA (PLURAL FOR
MITOCHONDRION)
Often called “power house” of cell.
Is enclosed by inner and outer membrane.
Use energy from food to make high energy compounds
that cell can use to grow, develop, and move.
CHLOROPLASTS
Found in plant cells only.
Use light energy (Sun) to make glucose sugar
molecules by process of photosynthesis.
Contain chlorophyll, a green pigment.
Is a double membraned organelle.
CELL WALL – found only in plant cells
• Functions to provide support and protection
for the plant cell.
• Made of cellulose (a carbohydrate) and
protein.
Cell Wall