Download Intro to Anatomy and Physiology Intro and Cellular Anatomy

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Anatomy and Physiology
Know the difference!
Anatomy is the
study of an
organism's body
structures and
their locations.
Physiology is
the study of
the functions
of each body
Anatomy is STRUCTURE
Physiology is FUNCTION
When the Structure and Function
of the body is in balance, all of the
‘parts’ of the body work together.
This state of Balance in the human
body is called HOMEOSTASIS
Body Organization
The body is
organized as
The smallest
• Recall, from medical
terminology, the root word
meaning cell is CYTE. This
will help you as you learn
unit of the
about various cell types
human body
throughout the body
is the CELL
Cells perform
several functions
Taking in food and oxygen
Producing heat and energy
Eliminating wastes
Performing unique tasks
Reproducing to create new,
identical cells
Parts of the cell
The Cell membrane
– The outer covering of the cell, or cell wall. It is
semi-permeable (think contact lens) meaning
some things can travel through the wall and
others cannot
Parts of the cell
• The cytoplasm is the sticky, fluid like interior
of the cell. It transports substances within the
cell and is also the site where chemical
reactions take place
• The nucleus is the ‘brain’ of the cell located
near the center of the cell. It directs the cell
in reproduction and controls many of the cells
• Within the cytoplasm of the cell, there are
many smaller structures that carry out specific
• Mitochondria are referred to as the
‘powerhouse’ of the cell. This is where energy
is produced in the form of ATP (adenosine
triphosphate) Mitochondria break down
nutrients to form ATP.
• Ribosomes help make protein. They are
formed inside the nucleus out of protein and
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
After they are formed in the nucleus the travel to
the cytoplasm where they either float freely or
attach themselves to the endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• The fine network of tubules that transports
substances in and out of the cell nucleus is
called the endoplasmic reticulum. The
endoplasmic reticulum also helps in the
production and storage of protein
• The centrioles are key in the process of cell
division. A single pair of centrioles live near
the nucleus of the cell.
The golgi apparatus
• The sewer system of the cell!
• The golgi apparatus is a stack of membrane
layers that transport secretions(garbage) out
of the cell
• Lysosomes protect the cell from foreign
invaders. They contain enzymes that allow
them digest foods. They use these enzymes to
destroy bacteria
Cellular Metabolism
Metabolism is the sum
of all chemical
reactions that take
place in a cell.
Metabolism consists of
Anabolism and
Anabolism is the
process of building
up complex
substances from
simpler ones.
Catabolism is the
process of breaking
down complex
substances into
simpler ones. This
process releases
Cell reproduction
in two
• Mitosis, which is cell division.
A non-sexual reproduction
which aids the body in
replacing old, damaged cells
with new ones.
• Meiosis, which is the basis
for sexual reproduction
• In the process of mitosis, a single cell
condenses and produces two cells. Each
mitotic cell contains 46 chromosomes (think
skin cell)
• Meiosis is sexual reproduction. Each cell
contains 23 chromosomes. (think egg or
Comparison of Meiosis to Mitosis
Problems on the cellular level can by caused by
aging, lack of oxygen, disease, bacteria or
• Atrophy:
• A decrease in size of cells as a result of aging or disease.
• Hyperplasia:
• An increase in the number of cells.
• Metaplasia:
• Cells being replaced by another type of cell.
• Dsyplasia:
• Cells changing in shape or organization.
• Neoplasia:
• Cells changing in structure with an uncontrolled growth pattern.
Sometimes cells
divide in an unusual
or abnormal way.
The cell division can
result in tumor
• A tumor is also knows
as a neoplasm
Neoplasms (tumors)
There are
two types
• A benign neoplasm is one in which the
tumor is confined to the area in which
they are formed. It is non-cancerous
and can be removed through surgery
• Usually, benign neoplasms are
relatively harmless, though they can
cause inconvenience or discomfort.
Benign neoplasms in the brain or spinal
cord can be life threatening
A Malignant Neoplasm is cancerous.
As abnormal cells reproduce, they
crowd out or invade normal cells.
They interfere with the functioning
of the specific organ or body part.
Malignant neoplasms can, and often
do spread to other parts of the
body. This is called Metastasis
Common locations for cancer
Bone marrow
However, there are many, many different forms
of cancer, and it can develop virtually anywhere
in the body
Cancer continued
• As we talk about each part of the body, we
will discuss cancer in more detail.
• Depending on the location of the cancer, early
warning signs and symptoms vary.
• Treatments for cancer include surgery,
chemotherapy, and radiation. All of these
options have side effects and consequences to
normal cells
When cells of
the same type
join together
for a common
purpose Tissue
is formed.
There are 4
types of tissue
in the human
• Epithelial
• Connective
• Nerve
• Muscle
Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue
• Covers organs
• Lines body cavities
• Covers inside and outside body surfaces
• Forms glands
• Is the main tissue involved in skin
Connective tissue
•Forms bones
•Holds body parts
•Can be hard or soft,
fat, cartilage, bone, etc
Muscle tissue contracts
to help the body move
Nerve Tissue
• Nerve tissue carries
messages throughout the
body to direct it’s activities.
• The brain and spinal cord
are comprised of nerve
An Organ is
formed when
tissues of the
same type
join together
to perform a
specific task.
Examples of
• Heart
• Lungs
• Kidney
• liver
Organ systems
• An organ system is comprised of multiple
organs working together to complete a
common task(s)
• Organs in a system are both independent and
• Independent in that they perform some
functions by themselves
• Interdependent in that they need each other
to complete some functions
Organ systems of the human body
Integumentary system
Skeletal system
Muscular system
Nervous system
Sensory system
Cardiovascular system
Lymphatic system
Respiratory system
Digestive system
Urinary system
Endocrine system
Reproductive system
• Homeostasis refers to a state of balance in the
human body.
• In order to achieve this balance, all organ
systems must be working properly
• Fluid balance, electrolyte balance, rest,
nutrition, temperature, and oxygen all play a
major role
• We know that organs within a system work
independently and interdependently, but
systems also work interdependently.
– Muscular and skeletal systems work together
– Cardiovascular, respiratory, and urinary work
– Nervous system and sensory system
Interdependence, cont
• Because the systems all work so closely with
one another, a problem with one system can
manifest itself into problems in other systems
The cost of a broken leg……
• Betty broke her leg, causing damage to her
skeletal system.
– Betty laid motionless for a long time because of pain,
causing blood to pool and clot in her circulatory
– A blood clot traveled to her lung, affecting her
respiratory system
– A lack of oxygen from the respiratory system caused
damage to the brain, part of the Nervous system
– After weeks of immobilization, her muscles atrophied,
causing problems with her muscular system
• There are two types of immunity
• Natural immunity- the immunity to certain
things that we are born with
• Acquired immunity – the immunity to certain
things that we develop
Acquired immunity
• When a body is exposed to certain invaders it
creates antibodies to fight the invader, then it
tries to make itself permanently immune to
the invader
Acquired immunity
• Natural acquired immunity is caused by
unintentional exposure. For example, people who
get measles and recover normally do not get
them again.
• Artificial acquired immunity is caused by
intentional exposure. For example, a person may
be injected with a vaccine that contains a very
mild form of a disease. In response, the body
creates antibodies for the disease. This process is
called immunization.
Active or passive
• Passive acquired immunity is borrowing
antibodies from another person or species,
and it lasts a short time. For example, a
person who has a poisonous snakebite must
be given a dose of antitoxin immediately.
• Active acquired immunity occurs when
people develop their own antibodies. It is
preferred because it lasts longer.
The Skeletal System
• Provides shape and support to the body
• Protects vital organs
• Acts as a set of levers, and together with
muscles helps a person move
• Produces blood cells
• Stores calcium
The skeletal system
• The skeletal system is comprised of 206 bones,
cartilage and joints.
• It is made of connective tissue
• It’s the ‘framework’ for the human body
Types of bones
• Bones are classified by shape into four
• Long
• Flat
• Short
• irregular
Long bones
• Are longer than they are wide. Long bones
form the arms and legs.
• They contain a lot of bone marrow
Flat bones
• Have a broad, flat shape.
• They make up the pelvis and skull as well as
shoulder blades.
• They provide a large surface area for muscles
to attach
Short bones
• Are about as wide as they are long.
• Make up the bones of the wrists and ankles
Irregular bones
• ……. Bones that don’t fit into another
category. They are the bones of the spine,
ear, and face.
• The long part of the
bone is known as the
diaphysis, or shaft.
• Each end of the bone is
covered by the
• The epiphysis is covered
by cartilage to help
reduce shock where
bones rub