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Life Science Study Guide 1. Study vocabulary for cells. (KNOW THEM!) 2. Study your handouts and notes. (Reread if necessary!) 3. Define: a. Cells: The basic unit of life and the smallest part of a living thing that is capable of life. b. Cell membrane: Surrounds the cell to give it shape and controls what goes in and out of the cell c. Cell wall: Found in plant cells, a stiff layer that surrounds the cell membrane. d. Chloroplasts: Structures found in many plant leaves and stems, which trap energy of light and make food. e. Chromosomes: One of the thread-like structures found in the nucleus of a cell that stores detailed directions for the cell’s activities. f. Cytoplasm: Gel-like substance between the nucleus and the cell membrane. g. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms. It is the carrier of genetic information. h. Meosis: The special kind of cell division in which sex cells are produced with half as many chromosomes as in other cells. i. Mitochondria: The powerhouses of the cell. The rod-shaped structures change chemicals in to food for energy. j. Mitosis: The division of the nucleus while a cell is dividing into two identical cells. k. Nucleus: The control center of the cell. It controls chemical reactions and stores information for cell division. l. Organs: A group of two or more types of tissue that work together to carry out one specific function. m. Organ Systems: A group of organs working together. n. Tissues: A group of similar cells that work together to perform the same function. o. Vacuoles: Saclike structures that store water and food. 4. Look in your journal. We discussed how some organelles are similar to other things. For example, a membrane is like a fence. Please be able to tell me which organelle is similar to something else and why. Cell Wall- Similar to tree bark because it is a hard outer layer like bark. Cell membrane- Like a fence because it controls what goes in and out. Nucleus- Like a brain, it controls what happens in the cell Vacuole- Like a stomach, because it holds food and water. 5. Please know the 4 main differences between plant and animal cells. 1. Shape 2. Size of vacuole 3. Cell wall 4. Chroloplasts 6. Please know the levels of organization from cells to organ systems. Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems. 7. Fill in the blanks. Cells, __tissues______________, organs, __________organ systems_________________. 8. Please be able to explain why cells are the fundamental units of life . Without cells, living things would not exist. Cells carry out the basic functions of life.