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Name__________________________ Date______ Period_______
Protein Synthesis
1. The production of proteins is called _____________ _____________.
2. Proteins are made of chains of ___________ __________ held together by
___________ bonds.
3. How many amino acids are there?
4. The function of a protein depends on its _________________ structure.
5. Each combination of three nucleotides on mRNA is called a _____________
and codes for a specific __________ __________.
6. Use the mRNA codon table to list the 20 amino acids.
7. Do some amino acids have more than one codon? Give an example.
8. Name the start codon.
9. Name the 3 stop codons.
10. Define translation.
11. Where does translation occur in a cell?
12. The cell organelle known as the ___________ is where proteins are made.
13. Amino acids are carried to the ribosome by ___________.
14. Transfer RNA (tRNA) has a sequence of three nucleotides called the
_____________ that binds to the ________ of mRNA.
15. Sketch and label a tRNA molecule.
16. A tRNA with an anticodon of UGA would pair with what mRNA codon? What
amino acid would his codon code for?
17. Ribosomes are composed of ___________ and _________ and may be
attached to the _______________ _____________ or be free in the
18. Proteins made by attached ribosomes will be ___________ from the cell,
while proteins made by ___________ ribosomes will be used in the cell.
19. How many binding sites do ribosomes have?
20. One site holds the __________ transcript, while the other sites hold
__________ with their attached amino acid.
21. Polypeptide formation begins when a ribosome attaches to what mRNA
22. What amino acid does the start codon code for?
23. Amino acids are attached to each other with __________ bonds as the
ribosome moves down the mRNA strand.
24. The ribosome moves down the mRNA _________ nucleotides at a time.
25. How does the ribosome know when to stop making the polypeptide?
26. Can more than one ribosome at a time translate an mRNA transcript?
27. The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain represents the
protein’s ______________ structure.
28. Polypeptides must combine with other ________________ before they
form a ____________ that can function in a cell.
29. Complete the following table:
DNA triplet
mRNA codon
tRNA anticodon
Amino Acid